1 DILEMMA OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE RISE OF CONFLICT IN THE POSTCOLONIAL STATES
1Nelson Goldpin Obah-Akpowoghaha, PhD
2Victor Ojakorotu, PhD
1Department of Political Science: Wesley University Ondo & Postdoctoral Research Fellow, North West University, South Africa
akpowoghaha@mail.com
2Department of Politics and International Relations:Faculty of Humanities, North-West University, Mafikeng
vojakoro@yahoo.com

This study will attempt to explore whether colonialism contributed to disparities in the quality of state institutions and governance in post-colonial states, the dilemma of environmental development and the incessant conflict in the African continent, using Angola and Nigeria as case studies. The primary data will be sourced from ten civil society organisations that are oriented towards the subject matter through interview guide in the aforementioned countries and will be purposively selected. Data will be analysed through content analysis. The study aims to contribute to the understanding of the reasons behind disparities between post-colonial states in terms of quality of institutions and strength of governments. While this issue has been addressed from the dimension of Western and European investment in Africa as an extension of modernised colonial system but the problem of development still lingered, hence this study.

2 MULTILINGUALISM, NATIONAL IDENTITY AND DEVELOPMENT IN AN ANGLOPHONE NIGERIA
Daniel Taiwo Ajani, PhD
Department of General Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan,

Nigeria is an Anglophone country by accident of history which was precipitated by the incursion of the British colonialists into the hitherto distinct, compact but loosely federated regions. The consequences of this reality have not in any way whittled down the more than 500 local languages spoken by the people. The paper explores the issues: multilingualism and national identity. It examines the possibility or otherwise of a “foreign” second but official language reflecting national identity. More importantly, it seeks to find out how the English language impacts the socio-economic development of Nigeria in this age of technology and digital platforms.
Keywords: English language, multilingualism, national identity, socio-political development

3 SOCIAL LEARNING APPROACH TO XENOPHOBIA IN SOUTH AFRICA
Mudiaga Itodje Otubu
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Mudiaga.otubu@gmail.com
08051719866

Xenophobia is an antisocial learned behaviour which has torched down properties and taken lives in contemporary South Africa. This is due to an external influence on the South African society, fed by apartheid and sustained by legal backings in South Africa before 1994. Many scholars have argued that the current problem of xenophobia in South Africa is as a result of an unequal economy. However, this paper seeks to argue that xenophobia in South Africa is a replicate of an unconscious existing behaviour which the Europeans brought to South Africa. This paper relies on secondary data collection, it is hinged on Social learning theory and textual analysis has been employed as methodology. The results from this research would help South African government in tackling the problem of xenophobia in South Africa.
Key words: Xenophobia, Europeans, Social learning, antisocial, Apartheid.

4 IBADAN, BROWN ROOFS ON SEVEN HILLS: MORE THAN A SINGLE STORY
1OYEBANJI Idayat Omobola, 1MAFE Temitope Sunday, 2Aluko Shaudah & 3*AYANDELE Olusola
1ND I & 2ND II (2018/2019 Class), Department of Public Administration,
3Advisor/Lecturer, Department of General Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria
*solaayan@gmail.com

Ibadan, the city at the edge of the savannah, with its seven hills, four rivers and two lakes, was founded as a war-camp in 1829. It was the dominant military force of the Yoruba nation that resisted the Fulani expansionists during the pre-colonial period. The city of many “first in Africa” and the cradle of modernity in Nigeria was a “city” before the colonization of Africa by the Europeans and it is still the largest traditional city in sub-Saharan Africa by geographical area. In 1965, John Pepper Clarks, a renowned Nigerian poet, wrote a poem about Ibadan and described the city thus;
“Ibadan / running splash of rust / and gold-flung and scattered / among seven hills like broken / china in the sun”.
This study, a poster assignment conducted by first year (ND I) students offering Introduction to Psychology (PAD 117) at the Department of Public Administration, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria, revealed that Ibadan, the intellectual capital of Nigeria and the political headquarters of south west Nigeria, is a beautiful, livable and affordable city with many tourist attractions and business opportunities. The researchers concluded from the sights of the capital city of Oyo State that Ibadan is a city with more than a single story.

5 IRRENDENTISM AND RESOURCE OWNERSHIP IN AFRICA: RETHINKING THE NEXUS BETWEEN POST CONFLICT JUSTICE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
OLALERE, K. O and ADEDOKUN, T. R (olalerefemi@gmail.com)
Department of General Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

Extant literature have theorised man’s insatiable thirst for acquisition and domination as depicted in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan as the reason why societies, nations, and states wage wars against one another in the attempts to forcefully take over resources. In the same manner, the irredentist inclination of these societies and states are depicted as fundamentally definitive of human nature in the search for insatiable wants. L. Coser (1956) affirms that wars, invasions, and conflicts are essentially on the increase because societies and states are seeking to expand into the same field or physical sphere for the control of resources for socio-economic development and this eventually, results into displacements and large scale destruction on the part of the vanquished while the aggressor state consolidates its development. On the background of the aforementioned, this paper adopts Brian Orend’s notion of jus post bellum in creating a nexus between post conflict justice and socio-economic development. It also undertakes a critical analysis of conflicts resulting from irredentism across Africa. In the final analysis, the paper attempts an overview of some attempts at post war reconstruction within Africa and submits that in order to initiate and sustain socio-economic development in Africa, there must necessarily be in place, a post conflict reconstruction agenda that is aptly premised on the cogency of social justice.
Keywords socio-economic development, irredentism, post-war justice, displacement

6 PRISON INMATES’ ENCOUNTER WITH GOD? AN ASSESSMENT OF FAITH-BASED REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES IN AGODI PRISONS, OYO STATE
Oyekunle, Oluseye Oyewo
Department of Public Administration, The Polytechnic, Ibadan
oyeoluseye@yahoo.com

With a focus on the correctional mandate of the Nigerian Prisons Service, the paper examines the significance of faith-based rehabilitation programmes on inmates of Agodi prisons, Ibadan. Data gathered from primary and secondary sources were handled, using interpretative analysis. The findings show that faith-based programmes serve as an organisational control mechanism in the prisons and inmates’ participation in the programmes are largely motivated by the hope of accessing welfare and related support services rendered by the faith-based organisations. The paper advocates the involvement of the faith-based organizations in technical and vocational education and training of the inmates, towards enhancing the correctional objective of the Nigerian Prisons Service.
Keywords: Faith-based Organisations, Prisons, Prison Inmates, Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Programmes.

7 RISK FACTORS, SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT OF THE SEQUELAE OF STRESS AMONG AFRICAN STUDENTS
Ogunyemi Joy Olufunmilayo1, Muniru Sherif Daniel2 and Ayandele Olusola3*
1Mass Communication IT Student 2018/2019,
2HND II 2018/2019, Department of Purchasing and Supply,
3Advisor/Psychology Lecturer, Department of General Studies,
The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
*solaayan@gmail.com

Tertiary Institution is a place many young adults feel the pressure to develop identities, acquire higher education, develop life goals, and make meaningful relationships. Pressure in tertiary institution could lead to psychological stress and subsequent reactions to the stress may elicit fear and feelings of failure, and high rates of anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation among the students. Sequelae of stress are abnormality such as anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and suicide. Cases of anxiety, depression and suicide have been increasingly featured in scientific publication and popular media, in which these complex phenomena could result into multiple converging factors with costs ranging from absenteeism to premature mortality. The sequelae of stress can cause intense suffering in the lives of the people affected, their families, friends and community. This paper is a review of studies assessing the risk factors, symptoms, prevention and treatment of psychological stress, anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation among African undergraduate students. Findings were discussed within the tenets of extant literature and recommendations were made on systemic approach to managing mental health among African students.
Keywords: stressful life events, anxiety, depression, suicide, African students

8 TOWARDS SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPLORATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND PEACE BUILDING IN NIGERIA
1Omotajo J. A. 1Bode Okunade A. S 2Ibanya, G. I.
1 The Polytechnic, Ibadan
2Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria

Following the magnitude and dimensions of insecurity in the nation, Nigeria has been tagged a land of ‘easy deaths’ by journalists in the country. That economic development cannot significantly be embarked upon in the atmosphere of insecurity is a long known truth established by scholars years ago. It has been recommended that ‘government must be proactive in dealing with security issues and threats, through modern methods of intelligence gathering, … and deploying advanced technology in managing security challenges’. Within the framework of Hegelian dialectics and Marxist conflict theories, this paper examines the theoretical provisions explaining the causes of the current conflicts leading to Herdsmen attacks, Boko Haram menace, armed banditry and other forms of insecurity in Nigeria. It also explores the available culturally admissible technologies deployable in the management of conflicts and the building of peace in the Nigerian nation.
Keywords: Technology, Conflict, Resolution

9 IRREDENTISM AND RESOURCE OWNERSHIP IN AFRICA
1Adenrele Lukman Azeez 2*Ayansola Olawale O.
*ayansolaolawale123@yahoo.com
1Department of Local Government and Development Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
2Department of Political Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

While territorial claims by sovereign states against aimed at reaching congruence between the boundaries of the nations. Whereas state borders are usually more or less unambiguously delimited on maps and even physically demarcated on the ground, national boundaries are imaginations about the spatial limits of the nation. Yet, these imaginations appear to the nation as very real. They are persistent and non-selective definitions of a nation’s settlement area and ancestral homeland. Irredentism will then arise when there is a struggle for the reunification of a portion of the nation-state formerly bifurcated through colonial imprint. The Berlin resolution replaced a system of overarching authorities with a system of clearly demarcated borders in colonial territories which ignored the ethno-geographic division between different peoples. However, uneven resource stock and disproportionate share in the configuration of the political map of colonial territories remained an enduring legacy of the Post-independence distress and cross border conflict among states in the Sub- Sahara Africa. Thus, Irredentism had posed grave implications to world politics including resource ownership. This paper intends to interrogate the impacts of irredentist drag in the outbreak of recurrent hostilities among African states, and the strategies for managing such occurrences in the continent with a specific focus on the Nigeria and Cameroun Bakassi Gulf drag.
Keywords: Irredentism, Resource Ownership, Africa

10 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACTS OF FULANI HERDSMEN AND FARMER CRISES ON FOOD SECURITY IN TEDE, OYO STATE
1Tpl. Ogundiran, Olayinka Robert 2Tpl. (Surv.) Lasisi, Kamil Oluranti
1 & 2 Department of Urban and Regional Planning, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

Conflicts between crop farmers and herders are common in nearly every part of Nigeria. It is a
huge challenge to economic development and threat to food security of the agrarian communities. This study assessed the impact of Fulani herdsmen and Farmer crises on food security in Tede, Atisbo Local Government Area, Oyo State. A total of 107 and 117 pieces of questionnaires were distributed to the herders and farmers respectively. Accidental sampling method was adopted. The results showed that crop farmers were predominantly male (87.2%), married (94.9%) and with mean age of 31 – 40 years. They were small scale farmers with average farm size of 1 – 3 hectares and were engaged in the production of yam (5.1%), cassava (33.3%), maize (32.5%) and other arable crops, mainly for income and household food supply. The study reveals that violation of laws/tradition, grazing of farmland and cultural factors were the major causes of conflict between crop farmers and herdsmen. Consequently, the socio-economic life, production outcome and settlement of farmers are affected, culminating to breakdown in livelihood assets of farmers. The study recommends that the Federal Government should review the existing structure of cattle routes and reserves, review the current program on nomadic education, and move beyond the deployment of security agencies and exercise alternative community-based responses to farmer-Fulani herdsmen conflicts while the State Government should provide adequate funding for the Great Green Wall Initiative.
Keywords: Conflicts, Herdsmen, Farmer, Crises, Food security

11 APPLICATION OF CRIMINAL PROFILING IN VIOLENT CRIME INVESTIGATIONS: A STUDY OF NIGERIAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Kolawole Shittu ADEBISI (Esq)
General Studies Department, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

The Nigerian criminal justice system is not entirely ignorant or unaware of the use and the merits of the application of criminal profiling as a tool in crime investigation. The technique was introduced to help law enforcement agencies solve serious crimes such as serial rape or murder, and to a lesser extent arson and property crime. At the heart of profiling lies the belief that by combining psychological principles with crime scene analysis, it is possible to identify the likely characteristics of a perpetrator. However, criminal profiling in Nigeria has not nearly reached the level of recognition, functionality or institutionalisation that it has attained in other jurisdictions. This study aims to examine feasibility and the practicality of offender profiling in criminal investigation of violent crimes with particular focus on the Nigerian criminal justice system. It will also give an expository critique of the loopholes and impediments in the Nigerian criminal justice system and ways criminal profiling can fill up these holes. The research methods employed in this study includes a combination of both primary and secondary sources. The work greatly highlighted the effectiveness of this field and thus recommend that criminal investigative analysis should be effectively immersed into the justice system and should also receive as much recognition as it has in other jurisdictions especially in the US and in major parts of Europe.
Keywords: Criminal Profiling; Crime Investigation; Violent Crime; Criminal Justice System

12 DIGITAL MEDIA, CLICKTIVISM AND POLITICAL INCLUSIVISM AMONG MILLENIALS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Olufemi D. Ipadeola
fipadeola@gmail.com
Department of General Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria

Digital Media has democratized media practice, access and consumption on the African continent. Thus, providing Africans with valuable tools for democratic engagement, participation and activism. However, Millenials, who represent close to 70 percent of Africa’s population, despite being active in the digital media space are grossly underrepresented in Sub Saharan Africa’s formal political institutions. The focal thrust of this paper is the use of Digital Media among African Millenials and its effect in promoting their political inclusiveness on the continent. This paper was guided within the theoretical frameworks of the Public Sphere, Slacktivism and the Uses and Gratification theories. The results reveal that the use of #BringBackOurGirls, #OccupyNigeria, #TakeitBack, #NotTooYoungtoRun (Nigeria) #BringBackMutharika (Malawi), #OromoProtests, #AmharaProtests (Ethiopia) #FeesMustFall, #SayNotoXenephobia (South Africa), #ThisFlag (Zimbabwe), #Kony2012 (Uganda) and other political/governance engagement tools utilised in the digital media space on the continent at different times have ignited a broader discussion about the effectiveness of using Digital Media for creating sustained movements for political engagements and effecting meaningful socio – political change. The paper concludes that the role of Digital Media as well as its continuously expanding use and spread on the African continent can no longer be ignored as African governments will increasingly be forced to address public issues, avoid exclusionary practices and embrace inclusive practices that promote participation of Millenials in political processes on the continent as a consequence of pressures from the digital media space.

13 AN APPRAISAL OF CYBER MARKETING AS A CATALYST FOR DEVELOPMENT IN ONLINE FIRMS IN NIGERIA
1Aremu, Atinuke Bukola 2Lawal, Lateefat Olaitan
Department of Business Administration and Management Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan,
1awetik2004@yahoo.com 2olatiamiy@yahoo.com.

This study investigated cyber marketing as a catalyst for development in online firms in Nigeria. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which the cyber marketing helps in promoting the development of emerging online market firms in terms of sales volume and overall firm’s growth. This study was narrowed to the two selected online shopping firms, Konga and Jumia located in Ibadan metropolis. The descriptive research design was used in gathering data from employees in the firms and out of one hundred (100) questionnaires that were distributed, 94 were received and only 86 fully filled were used in data analysis with the use of Average Mean Score, standard deviation and Z test statistical tool. The results showed that; cyber marketing has a significant impact on sales volume of online market firms with (Zcal (10.36 ) > Ztab (1.645) at significant level (0.05 ) and also, cyber marketing adoption strategies significantly improve the overall growth and development of the online firms in Nigeria with (Zcal (11.05) > Ztab (1.645) at significant level (0.05 ). It was indicated from findings that online firms have gained a significant advantage marketing their product online particularly in the areas of customers satisfaction, marketing efficiency, more importantly increasing revenue stream and improve the country’s socio-economic development. It is recommended that more cyber marketing promoting policies should be established to improve the level of cyber marketing adoption in Nigeria and also to boost the overall growth of Nigerian economy.
Keywords: Cyber marketing, online firms, firm’s growth

14 IMPLICATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING ON SMEs GROWTH IN AFRICA
1Egunjobi, G O 2Sanusi, A. J 3Oladeji A. A
oyejopegrace@gmail.com, 08160518900 yemisanade@gmail.com, 09095176345
s4shola@yahoo.com, 08035713894
Dept of Business Administration and Management, 1,3 The Polytechnic Ibadan 2Ibadan City Polytechnic, Ibadan

Social media is a form of information and communication technology enhanced by a group of internet-based applications on the world wide web which allows the users to generate and exchange certain contents. This study examined the implication of social media marketing on SMEs growth in Africa. As a result, this study examines how SMEs operators in Africa are using social media networks to achieve competitive advantage through the elements of marketing mix (promotion and place) for the growth of their enterprises. The study adopted survey research design. Data were collected through questionnaire purposively from three hundred and forty SMEs operators selected as sample size across different parts of Africa using both online and offline means. Hence, the questionnaires were structured and administered to the target respondents on a four-point Likert scale. Data collected were therefore analyzed using a simple regression statistic for testing the formulated research hypotheses through the aid of SPSS version 22.0. Findings revealed that social media marketing through promotion and place have positive significant effect on SMEs growth in Africa. Hence, social media through promotion mix has a more significant effect on SMEs growth by increasing their profitability than the place mix. Therefore, the combined effect indicates that promotional mix element is the most critical element that predicts social media usage towards increasing the profitability of SMEs operators in Africa, with coefficient and p-value of β1=-0.549 (p-value<0.000) and β2=0.528 (p-value<0.000) at 5% level of significance. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that social media marketing through promotion and place elements has a positive implication on SMEs growth in Africa. It is therefore recommended from the study that SMEs operators in Africa should further explore the usage of social media to promote their products and get them acquired in different parts of world particularly in Africa. In addition, SMEs owners that are non-users across African countries are advised to emulate their colleagues to enable them tap into all benefits that may come with social media usage.
Keywords: Social media marketing, SMEs growth, Profitability.

15 INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIAN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF THE IBADAN POLYTECHNIC, IBADAN.
OLANIRU, Oluwatosin S
tosinoh11@gmail.com
Department of Public Administration, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

Social media usage has become one of the most common activities in the society at large. It offers today’s youth a portal for entertainment, communication and it is becoming one of the main platforms for accessing information and news for academic purpose as well. However, it is alarming that unrestrained use of social media is becoming a bane to academic learning especially among undergraduates. This study examines the influence of social media on students’ academic performance in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The study adopts media effects theory to analyse the efficacy of social media on academic performance. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 200 randomly selected undergraduates, while descriptive statistical tools were used to analyse the data. Findings identified that the social media has the potential to influence and affect academic performance when it is mainly used for unproductive activities. Therefore, the study concludes that excessive use of social media can lead to poor academic performance and recommends that students should utilise social media for academic purpose while regulating the time spent on social networking sites rather than spending the majority of their time online.
Keywords: Social Media, Student, Academic Performances, Tertiary Institution

16 MISINFORMATION IN THE ERA OF ‘GLOCAL’ NETWORKING: NETIZENS’ EXPERIENCES & CALL FOR DEVELOPMENT-ORIENTED MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY
1Olomide Kolawole,kolaolomi@gmail.com,+2348133593208
2Adediran, Ismail Adesina, Akeukewe2011@gmail.com,+2348024204498
3Ajetunmobi, Umar Olansile, ajetunmobiumarolansile@gmail.com,+2348161777838
1,2The Ibarapa Polytechnic, Eruwa ,
3Infoprations Limited, Lagos

Fake news or misinformation is a global virus that has generated widespread discussions at conferences, in the media space, among policy makers, the government, ICT giants and the academia. A few arguments emerged from literature that the porosity of social/new media is greatly facilitating the rate at which distorted news break and travel. This study reviewed literature to establish the interplay between new media and misinformation and assessed the objectives behind initiating and circulating fake news by its instigators and promoters. It also examined some strategies to adopt in spotting distorted news/information. To achieve these research objectives, the authors explored systematic review, survey and in-depth interview research designs. Samples of journal articles, theses, conference reports, newspaper stories and academic articles were purposively selected for the systematic review; four hundred and seventeen (417) respondents filled out the questionnaire through a structured Google form, while five (5) media practitioners were interviewed. Findings showed that almost every segment of the society is culpable of spreading fake news or has at one time or the other being victims of misinformation because fake news handlers target almost every netizen. Findings also indicated that fake news handlers/promoters distort information to drive more traffic to their platforms, to promote a sinister agenda and to deceive/confuse readers, thereby threatening national unity, progress, peace and harmonious co-existence. The researchers therefore recommend that media professionals (practicing and academic) and the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) constantly sensitise Nigerians on Media Information Literacy, truth-driven citizen journalism and other practicable strategies that would curtail the widespread of misinformation in the country.
Key words: Fake News, Misinformation, Netizen, New/Social Media, Glocal Networking,

17 USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA FOR THE SPREAD OF FAKE NEWS: A COVER-UP FOR CYBERCRIMINALS AND THREAT TO REPUTATION MANAGEMENT
1.Oloyede, Kola Esq. kolaeleni@yahoo.com 08033822677
2.Owolabi, Samson Sunday owoflowsam@gmail.com 08038621543
1Department of General Studies,
2Department of Mass Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

In this era of internet and variety of social media, creation and consumption of news and information in our society is changing very fast and the internet is only the latest means of communication being abused to spread lies and misinformation. It is therefore no longer news that we are living in an era of fake news where cybercriminals have been delving into this phenomenon and turning it into a lucrative business at the expense of their helpless victims. This has made the management of reputation of notable Nigerian personalities a challenging phenomenon. Simply put, the increasing use of smart mobile devices has made social media platforms to be irreversibly powerful in providing news, a development that has made a lot of people believe that whatever they see on the internet is very reliable. Besides, new channels of online communication, such as Skype, WhatsApp, Messenger and many others have also led to the rampant increase in the spread of fake news. The paper seeks to determine how reliable are the news derived from some of these social media platforms. This paper delves into the techniques cybercriminals have ceaselessly adopted to spread fake news with a view to blackmailing notable Nigerian citizens and subjecting their reputation to cyber-attack. It also shows why consumers of online news contents need to verify every news item they come across on the internet before accepting that they are authentic. With this, the growing level of awareness among citizens of African countries would make it difficult for fake news to thrive on the African continent. This paper adopts the traditional empirical-analytical method to analyze the current issues about fake news while data available on reliable public domain websites, such as, FactCheck.Org and others portals are used for formulating research questions. The results from primary and secondary resources are used to highlight cases of fake news on the social media and provide technical guidelines to detect its negative impact on society.
Keywords: Internet; Social Media; Fake News; Cybercriminals; Reputation Management.

18 ROLES OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON EDUCATED NIGERIAN’S PERCEPTION OF HERDSMEN THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY.
1Ojo, Olumuyiwa Kolawole 2Oluwafemi, Richard
1 & 2Department of General Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

Cases of herdsmen and farmers clashes became more rampant across Nigeria in the last one decade. This has further escalated to more serious threat to human and national security in form of banditry and kidnapping traced to activities of cattle herders in different regions of the country. One of the resultant effects is the change in the perception of Nigerians about herdsmen in their communities. Herdsmen are currently perceived as a potent threat to national security by many Nigerians. This paper examines the roles of social media platforms like WhatsApp, Facebook and Instagram in the development of the new perception among Nigerians. The study relies on the Cultivation Theory of the Media which predicts that people’s concept of reality is influenced by their exposure to media channels. The study adopts the survey methodology in looking at the population of educated Nigerians across the major ethnic groups in the country. Purposive sampling was employed in data collection among educated Nigerians who frequently access social media platforms. Simple percentages, frequencies and regression analysis were used in the analysis of collected data. The study discovered that many educated Nigerians were influenced by different types of messages received through social media platforms. The paper therefore recommended that Nigerians need to be more critical of messages received on social media platforms.
Keywords: Herdsmen, security, educated Nigerians, social media platforms, perception

19 A DIAGNOSIS OF NIGERIA’S PUBLIC PROCUREMENT ACT: A STUDY OF PETITIONS AGAINST GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES
1Adedokun, F. B. femiadedokun2013@gmail.com
2Bello, S.A. stephen.abiodun7@gmail.com
3Fasina, O.T. imdtobi@yahoo.com
Purchasing & Supply Department, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

Over 30 years, the public procurement on goods and services was marred with irregularities of continuous policy change, quack contractors, unqualified government officials, administrative bottlenecks, failed contracts and shady processes but a major reform took place at the return of Nigeria to democratic rule which gave birth to the popularly law known as ‘Public Procurement Act (PPA 2007). However, efforts to institutionalise and deepen the Public Procurement Act for effective public service delivery has been abortive since it was enacted because of failure on the part of government to provide enabling environment for the Act and on the other hand the operators at the Procuring Entities are far from having the know-how. This paper attempts in diagnosing the salient part of the Act particularly as a result of multiple petitions that visually affect all the government ministries Procuring Entities. The methodology employed is simple percentage analysis drawn from secondary data on Petitions submitted to Bureau of Public Procurement (BPP) from Contractors and Third parties who participated in the different bids for the period under review. Findings reveal that petitions are on the increase which has preoccupied the BPP and distracted the later from concentrating on improving the process and ensuring sound public procurement practices, consequently recommendations was made to the regulator and operators to ensure process transparency and public service delivery as a tool to stimulate socio-economic development as provided by the enacted Act.
Keywords: Public Procurement Act, Petitions, Diagnosis, Public service delivery, and Socio-economic development.

20 AN EVALUATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN THE NIGERIA TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
1Bolaji, Aderemi Muyiwa, 08134282474 2Owosowoye, Isaac Oluwatosin, 08059364867
3Ajayi, Jide Peter ,08054065784
Department of Business Administration and Management Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

Entrepreneurship education is introduced into the Nigeria educational system to provide the necessary skills, competence, understanding, and prepare the Nigerian graduates for self-reliance, thereby contributing to nation building. This paper evaluates entrepreneurship education in the Nigeria Tertiary Institutions with reference to The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Data for this study was obtained through self-administered questionnaire. In addition, simple percentage ranking, correlation and regression analysis techniques were used to analyse the questionnaire. The result obtained indicates that entrepreneurship education is a good policy and it has positive effect on self-employment initiatives but management, departments, and students are taking it with levity. This study recommends that students should be encouraged beyond entrepreneurship school training projects to business ventures start-ups at micro and small-levels. Also, The Polytechnic, Ibadan management should collaborate with existing entrepreneurs and business organisations in providing entrepreneurship training to the students and the departments should allocate the course to capable facilitators rather than as a console course. Lastly, The Polytechnic, Ibadan management, the government and other stakeholders can give special recognition, awards and sponsorship assistance as motivation to students whose projects are realistically outstanding. This will stimulate self-employment drives among graduates.
Keywords: Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship Education, Self-reliance, Tertiary Institution.

21 NATIONAL SECURITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: A PRAGMATIC EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA
Abodunde, S.M solamodinat@yahoo,
Ogunremi, G.D gbolaoxf@gmail.com,
Fadare, E.O ropfad05@gmail.com
Department of Business and Management Studies, The Polytechnic Ibadan, Nigeria

This study examined the influence of national security on economic growth of Nigeria between 2000 and 2018. The data for this study was obtained mainly from extraction of secondary data on public expenditures on security, agriculture, education, health, and gross domestic product from the reports/publications of Central Bank of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics and other scholarly reports on the subject matter between 2000 and 2018. The procedure for analysing the data was econometric procedure. Here the technique used was the multiple regression analysis to test whether the national security indices (expenditures on security, agriculture, education, and health) have impact on the economic growth of Nigeria proxy by Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The result revealed that expenditure on agriculture has positive influence on economic growth, while expenditures on security, education, and health have a negative influence on economic growth but not significant. This connotes that huge amount allocated to security, education and health have not yielded a positive result. Subsequently, the study recommended that all the three tiers of government should allocate 26 percent of the budget to education sector as recommended by UNESCO, 15 percent of their annual budgets to health sector, while huge amount of money allocated to security should not be siphoned by the politicians.
Keywords: National Security, Budgetary, Gross Domestic Product, Agriculture, Education, Health

22 THE AFRICA DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES AND ITS ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE
Tella, Afeez Taiwo, taiwotella03@gmail.com, Department of Economics, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State
Olupona, Adeola Moromoke PhD, ayalawyer@yahoo.com, Department of General Studies,The Polytechnic, Ibadan. 08033937050

Agenda 2063 aspires for an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in the global arena. This however justifies the reason why African needs to look inward and focus on their strength for effective, sufficient and reliable development of the continent at large. Although this can be achieved using different ways out of which demographic effect cannot be left out. It is in-view of this that we intend to investigate the Africa demographic features and its economic performance from 1980 to 2018. We will employ different demographic features such as population, age, gender among others as well as real gross domestic product to proxy economic performance of selected African Countries based on income level. This study will capture eight African Countries out of which two will be from each income level namely the low, middle upper, middle lower and high income level. The study will make use of the preliminary techniques such as descriptive, correlation, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) Test; and Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt and Shin (KPSS) Test as unit root and stationarity test respectively which will determine the estimation techniques to be employed while a standardized beta test will not be left out in order to rank the level of importance of the independent variables to the dependent variable using views statistical package. The likely result is that the focused Country income level will influence the effect of incorporated demographic features on economic performance.

23 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL FOR ORGANISATION’S PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF COCA-COLA BOTTLING COMPANY, IBADAN PLANT.
1Ogunleke, Modupeola Omolara, ogunlekemodupeola2013@gmail.com
2Gbolahan, Adewale Abass, omogbolahanadewale2017@gmail.com
3Balogun, Mutiu Abiodun, balogunb12@gmail.com
1,2,3Department of Purchasing and Supply, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

Some captains of industries are of the opinion that inventory management is just a routine function in an organisation. Arising from this backdrop, this study aims at beaming its searchlight on inventory management as it affects the performance of Coca-Cola Bottling Company, Ibadan plant. A total of eight-three respondents constitute the sample for the study. Four research questions and four hypotheses were generated and tested at 10% (that is 0.10) significant level using descriptive statistics and non-parametric test (chi-square that is, x2). The result of the analysis showed that flexibility in inventory control management is an important approach to achieving organisational performance. It was found that organisations benefits from inventory control management by way of easy storage and retrieval of material, improved sales effectiveness and reduced operational cost. The study also found that there is a relationship between operational feasibility, utility of inventory control management in the customer related issues of the organisation and cost effectiveness technique are implemented to enhance the return on investment in the organisation. Effective inventory control management is recognised as one of the areas management of any organisation should acquire capability. It is recommended that organisations should adopt the inventory keeping method that best suits their operations.
Keywords: Inventory Management, Organisation’s Performance, Lead-time, Vendor Managed Inventory, Economic Order Quantity.

24 CONTRIBUTORY PENSION SCHEME IN THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE: BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES
Ganiyu, Akeem Adewale
Ganiyuakeem4sure@gmail.com
Department of Public Administration The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

The Nigeria pension administration started in the 1950s. The Pension Reform Act of 2004 and Revised Pension Reform Act of 2014 brought about the new pension scheme in Nigeria which is a defined contributory scheme unlike the old scheme which was largely defined benefits. This study focuses its attention on the assessment of contributory pension scheme in a bid to make inquiry on its benefits and challenges over the years. The study adopts secondary data for data collection and content analysis for the explanation of data collected. The study finds out that regular upward reviews of pensions and gratuities in Nigeria without appropriate methods of financing the scheme has become a major problem, which needs prompt attention in order to alleviate the hardship of pensioners in the country and concludes that based on the challenges facing the operation of the contributory pension scheme that seem to outweigh its benefits, the pension scheme may end up the way previous schemes ended as well as recommends that the Nigerian government should make a legislation and encourage the option of having the banks where the salary accounts of employees are domiciled to make pension deduction on monthly basis possible and have it remitted to the Pension Fund Administrators.
Keywords: Pension Scheme, Pension Reform, Contributory Pension, Public Service.

25 THE CHALLENGE OF INSECURITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS PROBLEM IN AFRICA: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE
1Nelson Goldpin Obah-Akpowoghaha, PhD
Department of Political Science: Wesley University Ondo
& Postdoctoral Research Fellow, North West University, South Africa akpowoghaha@mail.com
2Victor Ojakorotu, PhD
Department of Politics and International Relations: Faculty of Humanities, North-West University, Mafikeng
Email: vojakoro@yahoo.com

Studies have shown that the African continent has been plagued with different kind of problems such as unfavourable climate and ecological issues that have made pastoral farmers in search of favourable regions leading to herdsmen and indigenous farmers’ clashes; also, colonialism and leadership failure have been seen as the remote cause of incessant crises and uncontrollable conflict in the continent. Scholars have argued that state formations in Africa was not patterned along the tenets of social contract theory or evolutionary dynamism rather a creation done on behalf of the indigenous people of Africa against their beliefs, traditions, norms, stories and their gods. This artificial assemblage of states in the continent has led to misunderstanding and chaos leading to human rights violation either by away of curbing terror acts by the state or a demand of justice by aggrieved citizens which directly or indirectly jeopardises the freedom and properties of innocent citizens. It is on this backdrop, this paper attempts to investigate the extent the aforementioned variables have proportionally contributed to human rights problems in Africa using Nigeria as a point of analysis. This paper relies on secondary sources of data which aim at proffering a lasting solution to problems of human rights violation in the continent.
Keywords: Africa, Nigeria, Human rights, Human Rights Problem, Insecurity, Leadership Failure

26 POVERTY AND INSECURITY: NIGERIA’S STUMBLING BLOCK TO ECONOMIC PROSPERITY
1Oladepo, Kazeem Adebowale; adeykaz@yahoo.com 2Ajao, Sheriff Olanrewaju; l.ajao@yahoo.com
3Sanni, Oluwakayode; 08053325595
1,2,3 Department of Local Government and Development Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

Poverty and insecurity are not only the potential stumbling blocks to Nigeria’s collective economic prosperity in the foreseeable future but also pose as real threats to the survival of Nigeria as an entity. With heavy reliance on secondary data derived from library search, archival records, government records and internet search, the paper will present illuminating discourse on the nexus between poverty and insecurity and how these will affect Nigeria’s economic growth, welfare of the Nigerian citizens and solutions to these national problems.
Key Words: Poverty, Insecurity and Economic Prosperity

27 HUMAN INSECURITY: A FACTOR UNDERMINING NIGERIA DEVELOPMENT
1Oyetunji, B.A, 2Olabode, O.A, 3Lawal, A.O
1Department of Local Government and Development Studies, bushiratabidemi@yahoo.com
2Department of Public Administration, olayinka24.oo@gmail.com
3Department of Public Administration,olasukanmilawal18@gmail.com
The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State.

In Africa, it is imperative to assert that one of the indices of underdevelopment is insecurity which has identified Nigeria as one. Human insecurity in Nigeria is a cankerworm that has eaten deep into our economy growth and defaced Nigerians in many nations of the world. This paper examines a clear decisive relevant issue on human insecurity and underdevelopment. Nigeria currently suffers a gangrene condition. Security deficits are merely relating or affecting an unhealthy state. The crises of the Nigerian state are such that there is no consensus yet on the narrative. It is important to note that the low life expectancy rate of this country is as a result of insecurity which has led to poverty. Human security emphasizes the interconnectedness of both threats and responses when addressing these insecurity issues. Human security is also based on a multi-sectional understanding of insecurities. Therefore, Human insecurity entails a broadened understanding of threats and includes causes of insecurity relating; for instance to economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community and political security. This study adopts content analysis through the use of textbooks, journals and newspapers to validate the study outcomes and place premium on leadership with vision and commitment because government needs to accelerate the pace of economic development through creating an economy with relevant social, economic and physical infrastructure to support business and industrial growth in order to ensure development.
Keywords: Human Insecurity, Insecurity, Security, Underdeveloped, Poverty, Nigeria.

28 RE-THINKING STATE POLICING AND NIGERIA NATIONAL SECURITY : AN OVERVIEW
ARULOGUN, Caleb Feyisope, carulogun@gmail.com
ADESIYAN, Emmanuel Ayobami PhD, ayo.adesiyan@gmail.com
Department of Local Government and Development Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

Security is a very sensitive issue and no nation can afford to toy with it due to its significance to human lives. Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2012), signifying a worsened state of insecurity in the country. The uneven composition of Nigerian populace viz her over two hundred and fifty ethnic groups alone is a source of daily acrimony. Different heinous crimes have been identified with each ethnic group in the polity ranging from banditry, burglary, herdsmen killing to large scale kidnapping which all threaten our national unity. Whereas, security of lives and properties are the primary purpose of government, “ The 1999 Constitution emphasizes that the security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of the government.” The Police that has been saddled with the duties of maintaining peace and order in the country need to be repositioned to conform to international best practice hence best fulfil their constitutional mandate. The structure of a state is the result of many interacting factors, both abiotic and biotic of which the security presence of Police is major. This paper therefore examines the importance and efficacious relevance of state policing in maintaining peace and order in Nigerian nation state. The researchers make use of secondary data to draw inferences from Nigerians’ experiences for better understanding of the need for state policing. The paper was able to highlight salient benefits state policing may accord the country while also itemising its challenges.
Keywords: Policing, state, security, police

29 CYBER-SECURITY: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES FOR DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA.
1OLAITAN, Olumide Olatunde,Olumideoaitan67@gmail.com; 2AZEEZ, Lukman Adedayo
lukman12002@yahoo.com; 3ADENIRAN, Emmanuel Gbadebo,adenirangbadebo@gmail.com
4IGE, Michael Adekunle,Adek4real24@yahoo.com
1&2 Department of Accountancy, 3&4 Department Banking & Finance, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.

Cybercrime has become so rampant in information technology and this poses a great challenge to the economic development of the nation. Cybercrime is the series of organized activities which pose a threat to the users, cyber space and cyber security. This study therefore investigates the effect of cybercrime on economic development in Nigeria. The study used survey research design using quantitative data gathered via questionnaires administered to 120 cyber operators in Ibadan Municipal. The data was analysed using regression analysis. The study revealed that cybercrime has negative impact on the economic development of the nation. It is therefore recommended that adequate security measures should be adopted by the nation through relevant agencies to curb the incessant cybercrime in the cyberspace.
Keywords: Cyber Security, Cyber-crime, Information Technology, Economic Development.

30 THE MENACE OF KIDNAPPING IN NIGERIA AND IMPLICATIONS ON SOCIO- ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
1SANNI OLUKAYODE ADEKUNLE omogeebu2000@gmail.com 08053325595
2OLADEPO KAZEEM ADEBOWALE adeykaz@yahoo.com 08033656518
3AJAO SHERIFF OLANREWAJU I.ajao@yahoo.com 08022212472, 08039160441
1,2,3 Department of Local Government and Development Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

Kidnapping within the global context is becoming alarming, especially in Africa. In Nigeria, kidnapping used to be linked with ritualists who were alleged to be after children whom they used for money ritual purpose. Kidnapping in the contemporary society has been upgraded to a lucrative industry where children are not only held hostage but also adults especially people with affluence are abducted and are compelled to buy their freedom with millions of Naira. The kidnapping industry evolved in Nigeria like a joke from a mere tool for agitation by the Niger- Delta militants. It has now become a business that has come to stay and gain prominence among the Boko-haram insurgents in the North and the Fulani herdsmen in some states of the country. Efforts to address the security threat and social economic challenges posed by this menace has not yielded desirable results. It is on this basis that this paper examines the causes, effect of kidnapping on socio economic development and panacea for the rising incidence. A documentary data of kidnapping in Nigeria by National Bureau of Statistics general household survey 2019 was subjected to content analysis. It is revealed that factors or combination of factors such as unemployment, poverty and inequality, corruption, poor policies, uneven distribution of wealth among others are responsible for incessant kidnapping in Nigeria contemporary society. This paper recommends holistic approach whereby every member of the Nigeria society sees the problem from collective perspective and plays significant roles of vigilance, detective and reporting.
Keywords: Kidnapping, Insurgency, Militants, Socio Economic Development

31 THE ALTAR CALLED RELIGION AND ITS CONTRIBUTIONS TO INSECURITY IN NIGERIA
1Kolawole Shittu ADEBISI (Esq.) 2Oluwaseun Olotu
1General Studies Department, The Polytechnic, Ibadan
2Religious Studies Department, University of Ibadan.

It is no gainsaying that security is germane for the all-round development that every typical Nigerian yearns for, however, security demands sacrifice in all ramifications. As a country rife with ethno-religious conflicts, community rivalries and plethora bodies of indigenous languages, Nigeria recently has added new brands of national insecurity to her list of woes and nearly every tribe in the country, at its own detriment, has sacrificed for a cause in order to reverse the continuous instability being witnessed by all in the fragile Nigeria. This paper examines how a pool of unwholesome religious attitudes among Nigerians amply fans the ember of national insecurity in our country. The work attempts to bring out how the altar of religion itself rather than keeping Nigeria safe and secure now slaughters the security of the nation. This study relies on secondary data from various sources to consider the pervasive attitudes of most Nigerians at the altar of religion whenever they are confronted with taking decisions on security matters from the perspective of religion. This research suggests that Nigerians can excel in diverse fields of human endeavours such as education, science and technology and every other what-have-you area provided they keep their religions out of the way.
Keywords: Religion; Insecurity; Ethno-religious conflict; Development

32 DANCING IN THE SOCIAL JUNGLE? THE EXTERNAL FEASIBILITY OF THE NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY
1Salau, Sarafadeen Abiola PhD, 2Lukman Azeez Adenrele,
1Department of Political Science, University of Ibadan
2Department of local Government and Development Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

And within the context of what the international human right record call a ‘debased polity’ experienced under the successive military regimes, is a long reached, and often robust framework in the studies of international politics, relies as it were essentially on the contending forces or factors of power, idea or interest; its manipulations to serve desirable ends in influencing inter-state behavior that which is a product of a stability factor. And in the nation’s political reform agenda is the organized debate of the fourth Nigeria’s republic on the 2015 political electoral emergence of opposition presidential candidate Muhammadu Buhari, who won more on account of an anticorruption platform. And of course, Buhari’s long standing reputation for what the noted observers call ‘discipline and personal history of integrity’ of a clampdown on all sources of contending public corruption in the 80s while maintained a stint as the military head, and his cardinal agenda on anticorruption reform raised an often dormant stakes of all Nigerians for national rebirth. In all the intents and purposes, the democratic transition on May 29, 1999 and after several decades of beleaguered military rule reassured all of the promises Nigeria’s project might hold after a recent stalemate produced in the annulment of a popular presidential election in June 12, and of course the political cyclone generated is yet to be undusted making the nation to continue to enjoy an unenviable record as a pariah state; underlain in the subtle diplomacy of chief Obasanjo were to reclaim a long dented image, and negotiate for debt rescheduling or its cancellation for which that earned Nigeria a Parish club debt forgiveness.

33 STATE-LOCAL GOVERNMENT RELATIONS: AN IMPETUS FOR SECURITY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AT THE GRASSROOTS
1DIEKOLA O.J., 2WAHAB Y.B. 3OLABODE O.A
Department of Public Administration, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
ywahab12@yahoo.com 08034297960, 08076653123, 08168811595

The ultimate goal of any serious government at whatever level is to promote societal development. Nigeria operates a three layer system of government viz: federal, state and local governments. Each of these layers is constitutionally recognized. The constitution spelt out the powers and limits of all levels of government thereby making it difficult for one level of government to encroach on another. This constitutional proviso has provided platform for a strong and virile relations between one level of government and the other. In the light of this, the paper therefore beams its searchlight on state-local government relations and its implications on security and socio-economic development at the grassroots. The paper adopts System and Power Theories to explain whether co-equal or interdependent relationship exists between the state and local government in Oyo State and the relationship has fostered development of the grassroots. In terms of power theory, the theory is used to explain power play between the state and local government especially when it is obvious that states in Nigeria exert considerable influence on Local Government authorities. The study is hinged on survey design. Data for the study was collected through primary and secondary sources. In terms of study area, five (5) local governments have been randomly selected, each representing each zone that makes Oyo State as a whole. The selected local government areas are; Ibadan North, Atiba, Ogbomosho North, Ibarapa East and Iseyin Local Governments. A total of one hundred and fifty copies of questionnaires were distributed in the selected local government area (100%) while a total of one hundred and nineteen recovered (79%). The study identified certain gaps in the relationship such as fiscal centralism, operations of state-local government joint account, excessive control from the state authorities as well as appointment of caretaker chairmen which is considered constitutional breach and state executive rascality as demonstrated by both the previous and current administrations in Oyo State. The study concludes that for the goal of grassroots development to be achieved, there is the need for local government autonomy which gives the third tier of government the opportunity to operate freely and administer local affairs without any encroachment from the higher levels of government.
Keywords: State-Local Relations, Local Government Administration, Security and Development.

34 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND 2019 GENERAL ELECTIONS IN NIGERIA: AN OVERVIEW
ADEYEYE T.O (Adeyeyefemi331@gmail.com) GANIYU A.A.
Department of Public Administration, Polytechnic Ibadan.

All over the world, the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) driven innovations to almost all human endeavours is not only common place but also stress and conflict free. Election and electoral process is not an exception. Application of biometric technology to electoral process is currently sweeping across developing countries of the world. The 2019 General Elections in Nigeria experienced both sides of the coin in the application of biometric technology. This paper aims to look into the impacts of digital technology on the 2019 General Elections in Nigeria with a view to determine its prospect for future elections. Descriptive but analytical approach is used in the study while secondary data constitute most of the facts explored. Among the findings of the paper is that adequate awareness is lacking due to the poor literacy level among Nigerians. The paper then concludes that if improvements is recorded on various institutions that form the bedrock of free and fair election such as the Election Administration Body (EMB), Security and Electricity, E-voting is realistic in Nigeria.
Keywords: ICT, Election, General Election, E-voting.

35 MODERN TECHNOLOGIES AND SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Osunkunle Olubunmi
Department of Office Technology and Management, The Polytechnic Ibadan, Oyo State
Dagoldmodareal05@gmail.com 08137306659
Ojo, Ajibola Elisha
Business and Entrep. Education Department, Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin
Comrade_jman@yahoo.com 07033753989

Technology has a great impact in all aspects of life and the global economy is currently undergoing fundamental transformation. Modern Technologies have very real impacts in most of industries and in all aspects of economy, while businesses and enterprises continue to undergo considerable changes. Usage of these technologies is revolutionizing the rules of business, resulting in structural transformation of enterprises. Modern businesses are not possible without the help of modern technologies, which is having significant impacts on the operations of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SME) and it is claimed to be essential for the survival and growth of a nation. This paper seeks to recognize the contributions of modern technologies in the development of Small and Medium Enterprises and the roles play in the revitalization and development of a nation. The paper concludes that modern technology presents a critical factor of development for economy in general and SME’s in particular. The paper recommends that these modern technologies should be used by SME’s as powerful tools to obtain competitive advantages, develop competitive strategies to produce high value products and services towards bcountry’s economy development which involves both socio-economic and political issues and pervades all aspects of societal life.
Keywords: Modern Technology, Small Scale Enterprise, Development

36 DEVOLVING AND INVOLVING TECHNOLOGICAL SKILLS TO PROMOTE SECURITY, PROSPERITY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN AFRICA
1Y.Y. Oyedemi 2D.A. Adesope
Department of General Studies, 1The Polytechnic, Ibadan 2The Okeogun Polytechnic, Saki

Africa, as a continent, is geographically diverse but problems confronting it are common and identical. These problems include, but not limited to poverty, insecurity, poor governance, terrorism, unemployment, poor economy and a myriad of social problems occasioned by general feeling of disillusionment and despair. There is no part of Africa that is worst hit than the sub- Saharan Africa. Several efforts have been made to mitigate or solve these problems but with low level of success or total failure. Low level of success in the sense of near absence of efforts to solve the problems or little success where efforts have been made at all. The end result is that the challenges remain unabated. With this at the background, this paper discusses various innovative and technological skills and other bio-data technology that can be devolved and evolved to solve some multifarious problems bedeviling the African continent.
Keywords: Technological skills, Bio-data technology, socio economic problems social ills, feeling of disillusionment.

37 SECURITY, POVERTY AND POLITICS OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
Raji Christian Mojeed.
Department of Mass Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

One of the greatest threats that the African continent is facing today is terrorism. Nigeria, as a nation is not excluded and she is at this instant confronted with intimidation from Boko Haram. This has made the nations of the world to rate such countries like this among the underdeveloped nations or third world nation. The security of any nation is very important in that where peace, safety of lives and properties are not guaranteed, there can be no meaningful development. The most important roles or duties of any nation is to protect her citizens against national and international threat by creating a strong system for defense both at home and abroad. Therefore, any nation that fails in this primary assignment can never be developed but will always remain at the back. Now, since security is the primary assignment of every nation and without which no nation of the world can develop therefore this paper focuses on the concept of security, the security agency and their understanding of national security. The paper looks at the virtues of wealth and the vices of poverty, the attitude of the government which is referred to as the politics of underdevelopment where the theoretical perspectives of this paper shall be examined. Based on the findings that the Federal Government through the National Assembly should always remember that the only way through which a nation can be developed is to take a good look at her citizens with proper consideration for their needs and that proper attention should be given to funding the national budget with adequate monitoring.

38 ACQUISITION OF OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT SKILLS FOR SELF-RELIANCE: A ROAD BLOCK TO UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA.
ADEBAYO, Sulaiman Adeodu
Department of Business Education, Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo. Oyo State, Nigeria.
08034335067 adebayosulaiman10@gmail.com

The study examined the “acquisition of office technology and management skills for self-reliance : A road block to unemployment in Nigeria”. The specific objectives were to examine the basic OTM skills possess by the students, the online OTM skills and the hindrances to the acquisition of OTM by the students for self- reliance. Data were collected using questionnaires administered to fifty (50) students from the two institutions selected. The study employed descriptive survey design method. Analysis was carried out using descriptive mean and standard deviation to determine the types of ICT skills possessed by the students of vocational and Technical Education from Federal College of Education (SP), Oyo and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo. Findings from the study indicated that Vocational and Technical education students did not develop much ICT skills on scanning machine, knowledge on www. LAN, web site and Engine and protect sites from hijackers. Also, cost of facilities, power supply, lack of awareness opportunities and poor funding by the government are the hindrances to the acquisition of ICT by the students. In conclusion, incorporation of ICT skills like e-learning, practical computer, provision of enough facilities and funding from the government will enhance students’ self-reliance.

39 PEACE AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: PERSPECTIVES FROM SELECTED YORUBA WRITTEN DRAMA
Bunmi Olujinmi Iyabode Alaga
Department of General Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

The crux and bane of almost all societies of the world has always been how to maintain, sustain, promote peace and manage conflicts whenever they crop up. Playwrights in their own wisdom globally, Yoruba playwrights inclusive, do portray in their works causes of breach of peace that leads to conflicts and also point to the way out of different imbroglios. This paper seeks to unearth the various solutions to conflict management which the authors proffer in their works on how to resolve societal crisis in selected Yoruba drama namely: Are Ago Arikuyeri by Ogunniran, Efunsetan Aniwura by Isola and Ina Ran by Olateju. The paper hinges on peace and conflict resolution theory as well as the sociology of literature. The paper finds out that co-wives rivalry, impatience, excessive and abuse of power, government negligence, high handedness, insensitiveness to the hardships of the citizenry and coercion are the remote and immediate causes of breach of peace as portrayed in the selected drama texts. We submit that both leaders and followers can derive the best native wisdom through reading the literary texts of any society where peace is elusive and adopt the wisdom therein to grow the society.

40 INHERENT DEVELOPMENTAL VALUES OF ÀPÀLÀ AND SÁKÁRÀ INDIGENOUS MUSIC IN AFRICA
Adio, Olubukola Oluranti, oluby2003@yahoo.co.uk
Department of Mass Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria
Fadipe, Israel A. Israelfadipe77@gmail.com
Department of Mass Communication, Chrisland University, Abeokuta, Nigeria

The argument of this paper is that music, especially Yoruba indigenous music genres of Apala and Sakara are undervalued media of communication. Some scholars have affirmed the journalistic roles which popular music has performed in different environments at the time conventional media were inert to truly reach some audience. Against the social responsibility theory of communication media, the research considered some purposively selected albums of Ayinla Omowura and Yusuf Olatunji, and analysed their transcribed verbal texts to determine how the artistes have used their music for cultural transmission, discussion of opinions and entertainment. While their lyrical contents displayed Yoruba social lifestyles, family, history, rituals, festivals, cosmology, philosophy, the artistes themselves are depicted as opinion shapers of public matters such as national census, politics, shelter, minimum wage, new driving system, new currency, social vices, and developmental issues. Also, there is evidence of panegyric poetry to praise the artistes’ clients, which reveals the distinctly unique styles and techniques of the individual musicians. Thus, it is easy to see the seasonal quality of Apala and Sakara music genres considering their inherent communicative roles and varied issues dominant in lyrical contents of these revered musicians.
Keywords: Apala, Sakara, Communication Media, Indigenous Music, Social Responsibility Theory

41 SEX, MONEY, MATERIALISM AND DRUG: TRENDY THEMES IN MUSIC THAT AFFECT BEHAVIOR
1AJIBOYE Timothy K, timajiboye@yahoo.co.uk
2AYANDELE Olusola, solaayan@gmail.com
1Department of Music Technology,
2Department of General Studies (Psychology Unit), The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

Throughout history, philosophers, anthropologists, musicologists, psychologists and other scientists have pondered the nature of music. Music is a powerful medium that enhances listeners’ mood, provides therapeutic intervention to problems, and helps them develop social identity. Listening to music is a ubiquitous companion to people’s everyday lives. The chart toping and money spinning genres of music among urban African youths are Afro-beat, hip-hop, rap and reggae, usually characterized by raucous raw vocals and danceable rhythms. These forms of music are labeled by some adults as “rebellious” and “antisocial” music, and perceived as promoting undesirable behavior like materialism, violence, drug use, promiscuity, blasphemy, depression, “yahoo-yahoo” and other delinquency, although some contemporary musicians have “prosocial” songs which promote gratitude, altruism, faith, education, peaceful coexistence and good governance. This study on the psychology of music uses social cognitive learning theory to investigate extant literature that has examined how themes of contemporary music affect the mind and behavior of listeners. Results suggest that musical lyrics with sex, money, materialism and drug use trend and sell more, and youths who listen to “antisocial” music are more likely to engage in reckless and deviant behavior. However music influence on behavior must be seen in the context of the entire fabric of globalization and socialization of African youths. The need to encourage “prosocial” music is suggested.
Keywords: musicology, psychology, trendy music, behavior

42 INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: EFFECTS OF AFRICAN PROVERBS ON PEACE MAKING AND CONFLICTS RESOLUTION.
1 Akano, Mathew Kayode 2 Oladiji, Tolulope Olufunmilayo 3 Egbeleye, Sunday Alani
1,2,3Department of General Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

Conflicts are natural phenomena which are found in any dynamic society. The African continent is enmeshed in series of social crises and violent conflicts such as inter-ethnic clashes, ethno-religious conflicts, political unrest, insurgency and terrorism. The paper highlights the role and use of proverbial expressions as a method of indigenous knowledge in the resolution of social conflicts among Africans. Proverbs are integral part of communication and language uttered skillfully by conflict mediators to reconcile warring parties. Drawing on African proverbs that touch on conflict resolution strategies, the paper analyses the linguistic and persuasive effects of proverbs in resolving and managing peace, resolving conflict and ensuring psychological wellbeing of the actors in conflict. This is achieved through a content analysis of randomly selected proverbs across African continent. The paper argues that proverbs are useful in indigenous arbitration, conflict resolution, and in making people to live peacefully with one another. The paper concludes that proverbs are indeed vital in relationship management and possess socializing and enduring values for peaceful co-existence. It avers that anybody with a good understanding of proverbs and their implications for peaceful coexistence would appreciate conflicts as an intricate part of existence and harmonious living.
Keywords: Proverbs, African languages, indigenous knowledge, conflict resolution, peace building, arbitration.

43 FARMERS / FULANI HERDSMENS CLASHES: A CASE OF ECONOMIC STRUGGLE
OR ETHNO-LINGUISTIC DOMINANCE?
Kola Oloyede D.
kolaeleni@yahoo.com
Department of General Studies the Polytechnic, Ibadan

The Nigerian State is bedeviled with several security crises ranging from religion and ethnic divisions. The Boko Haram insurgence has refused to dwindle despite the government’s claim of decimation of the sect. In recent times, the problem of farmers/ Fulani herdsmen has become so heightened with associated criminal activities like kidnapping, killing and rape especially in the western part of the country which has hitherto enjoy relative peace. The incidents of Fulani attack on farmers and kidnapping of people of this region has further deepened the ethno- linguistic divide of the country, thus several other constituent ethnic groups, save Hausa/Fulani are reconsidering the existence of the country called Nigeria as a unit. The country is obviously at the tipping point. This paper therefore examines whether the recent increase of the herdsmen activities in the western region and the suspicion of ‘’Fulanisation / Islamisation’’ is purely Ethno-Linguistic rivalry. The paper opines that ethno-Linguistic consciousness has become more pronounced than national consciousness. That economic factor is the major factor that that has disrupted the existence of relative peace especially between the farmers of the southwest geopolitical zone of the country and the Fulanis. This is perceived as a consequence of climate change which set two different ethnic people against one another for economic gain and dominance.
Keywords: Farmers, Herdsmen, Clashes, Peace, Ethnicity, Climate, Economic

44 THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS IN NIGERIA MUSIC INDUSTRY
Babatunde Henry Muyiwa
Music Technology Department, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
Tel: 08033474265 henrydickson2004@gmail.com

This paper explores the status of the Nigerian music industry through the paradigm of its music promotion, marketing, and distribution structure. Using ethnographic and bibliographic sources, the study traces the history of the Nigerian recording industry which nose-dived from the late 1980s with the exit of major label operators like Sony, Polygram and EMI due to political and economic factors and recognised the impetus given the music scene through the resilience and creativity of the new hip -hop generation who now have to contend with myriads of challenges among which is piracy and copyrights issues. While highlighting some of these challenges, the paper presents an array of possibilities as well as recommendations and concludes that with proper structuring and intervention, the Nigerian music industry can be a major player within the global music scene, and be a viable revenue earner for the country aside from crude oil.
Keywords: Popular music, The music industry, Nigeria, Piracy, Copyright issues.

45 NEW VISTAS IN AFRICAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENT INNOVATION: A PROPOSAL FOR DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN INSTRUMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
Kehinde Oluyemisi Faniyi,
omokehindefaniyi@gmail.com
Department of Music Technology, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

The technology of constructing musical instruments with new material is still relatively new, but fast gaining wide acceptance even among traditional musicians and instrument makers. Traditionally, specialised wood and animal skin has been the material of choice for many different musical instruments. However, the difference in the manufacturing environment and techniques is that the new materials are commercially available and easy to manipulate. While this situation provides more opportunities for innovation on one hand, it proposes an engagement between the material scientists and musical instrument technologists on the other, with the aim of fostering experiments with new materials. The paper employed the ethnographic research techniques and literary sources for its data collection. In conclusion, the paper noted that in recent times new materials have propelled improved designs and exceptional creativity of indigenous musical instruments. It therefore suggests a better understanding of the nature of traditional and new materials by music technologists and material scientists, with a view to opening up robust discussions for technological and economic development.
Keywords: Instrument Technology, Material Scientist, Instrument Technologists, Innovation

46 THE PRESS IN THE AGE OF INTERNET & A DEPRESSED ECONOMY: CHANGING FORTUNES OF JOURNALISM IN NIGERIA
‘Lekan TOGUNWA
Department of Mass Communication, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta Ogun State
08033609144, lektogunwa@gmail.com
Idowu AKINROSOYE
Department of Mass Communication, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree Osun State
08034660025, omoakin7071@gmail.com

Mass media operations have great impact on individuals, groups, the government and the society at large. This is perhaps why stakeholders in the political economy rely so much on it considering its huge influence and wider reach. In the same vein, the social changes and conditions in the society will continue to influence mass media operations and their contents. This study investigated influence of Internet and depressed economy on the operations of journalism practice in Nigeria. It sought to examine the effects of Internet and a depressed economy on the Nigerian society, and the extent of their influence on socio-economic and political development of Nigeria. Through survey research method, the study adopted interview and questionnaire to obtain data in Abeokuta, Ogun State. 100 journalists were sampled while the Caretaker Chairman of Ogun State Chapter of Nigerian Union of Journalist (NUJ) and two top editors of media organizations were interviewed. The study found that Internet has both positive and negative impacts on journalism practice. The study recommends among others that while journalists should continue to explore internet technology to enhance their practice, they need to do some re-invention to secure adverse effects of Internet and economic depression.
Keywords: Journalism, Mass Media, Internet, NUJ, Economy

47 ASSESSING ETHICAL ISSUES ON JOURNALISTIC PRACTICE IN NIGERIA: STUDY OF THE PUNCH AND THISDAY NEWSPAPERS
1Sunday, Ufot Imoh, 2Oladimeji, Simon Pinheiro 3 Oluwaseyi, Sanyaolu 4Adebayo, Alade
1Department of General Studies, Grace Polytechnic, Omu-Ijebu, Ogun State
2Department of Mass Communication, Interlink Polytechnic, Ijebu-Jesa, Osun State, Nigeria
otunbasop1980@gmail.com +2348160910409
3 Samech Concept & PR Consultancy, Ibadan, Oyo State samechconcept@gmail.com +23436849648
4Nigerian Tribune Plc, Imalefalafia, Ibadan, Oyo State aladebayo2017@yahoo.com +2348055001747

This study examined ethical issues of journalistic practice in Nigeria. The paper identified government control and ownership of the media content. The study was anchored on the theoretical framework of Social Responsibility Theory and grounded on the Agenda-setting theory of the mass media. The theory opines that the media set agenda for the public to follow. A survey research method was adopted with a sample size of 296. Data gathered were analysed and presented in tables with simple percentages. The findings revealed that newspaper organisations are currently involved in junk and brown envelope journalism. The study recommended that alternative media is a good option to media ownership in terms of their content, production or distribution.
Keyword: Ethical, Media, Ownership, Government, Journalism.

48 MANAGING INSTITUTIONAL REPUTATION IN TIMES OF CRISIS: THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, EDE EXPERIENCE
1Kazeem Alade Oyedeji (ANIPR), 2Najeemdeen Adunola (ANIPR), 3Olaniran Taiwo, and
4Adedeji Moses Olumide (adunoloye@yahoo.com)
1Multi Media Unit, Federal Polytechnic, Ede; 2 & 3Mass Communication Department, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
4Mass Communication Department, The Ibarapa, Polytechnic

This study seeks to find out how crisis can affect the reputation of an institution. It analysed three crises as case studies at the Federal Polytechnic, Ede from 2012 – 2017.It tried to establish the negative implications of frequent crises in the institution, as it affects the students, development and overall reputation of the institution in question. The study used qualitative method of analysis to discuss surveyed primary and secondary data in order to meet the objectives. It concludes that managing an institutional reputation in times of crisis presents challenges that call for new conception and development of strategies of crises containment in the dynamics of Public Relations practice.
Keywords: Reputation, Managing, Crisis, Institution.

49 PORTRAYAL OF YORUBA TRADITIONAL RELIGION IN AWARI OMO ODUDUWA PROGRAMME OF MITV
1Oladimeji Simon Pinheiro 2Olusoji Samson Olatunji 3Samson Sunday Owolabi
1otunbasop1980@gmail.com 2sojioustimilehin@gmail.com 3owoflowsam@gmail.com
1+2348160910409 2+2347032328254 3+2348038621543
Department of Mass Communication, 1Interlink Polytechnic, Ijebu-Jesa, Osun State 23The Polytechnic, Ibadan

African culture intertwined with religion which makes religion permeates into all aspects of life of human, which made it not easy or possible to isolate it. This study therefore examined how the television programmes has portrayed the Yoruba traditional belief system, and as well analyzed the controversies in the representation of Yoruba Traditional Religion on television and in tandem to the actual practice of Yoruba Traditional Religion. The study was anchored on Media-Society Theory of Functionalism . it explains that ,mass communication can be considered as both a ‘societal’ and a ‘cultural’ phenomenon and also as part of the structure of society, and its technological infrastructure is part of the economic and power base, while the ideas, images and information disseminated by the media are evidently an important aspect of our culture. The Study also anchored on Culturalist Theory , it claims that people interact with media to create their own meaning about the image and messages they receive and sees audience playing an active rather than passive role in relations to mass media. The study adopted the ethnographic research design with the use of key-informants interview and content analysis to elicit in-depth information needed. A collection, of some recorded episodes of the programme and interviews were analyzed to ascertain the extent it has portray the belief system of Yoruba traditional religion. The finding of this study revealed that media owners have not seen relevance of promoting such programmes on their stations , the rites and ritual practices of the Yoruba traditional religion on which the belief system is anchored on are not permitted to be broadcasted due to NBC law. The findings further revealed that presenters and producers of the Yoruba traditional religion programmes on Television are not core worshipers or traditionalist of the religion which pave way for misrepresentation. The study revealed that what is being portray in the television programme are not the true reflection of practice of the religion in totality. The researcher therefore recommend that National Broadcasting Cooperation (NBC) to make better policies and laws that will make the african religion practices to be aired by media stations, which would have given opportunity to the audience to understand the belief system of yoruba traditional religion. And also the core practitioners should be core producers and presenters of Yoruba traditional religion programmes. while programes that will be aired should reflect the actuality of the religion as it being practiced and promote the belief system of Yoruba traditional religion.
Keywords: Yoruba; Traditional Religion; Media; Rites and Rituals

50 GOOD INSTITUTIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND THE CHALLENGES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN CURTAILING CRISIS AND SECURITY CHALLENGES IN THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, EDE OSUN STATE.
1Kazeem Alade Oyedeji 2Najeemdeen Adunola
1Multi-Media Unit, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Nigeria
2Department of Mass Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria.

This study focuses on the tenets of good administration, identifies peace as a panacea for institutional development and areas that good administration can be enhanced through effective Public Relations techniques/Reputational building. The author highlighted the misconceptions about Public Relations and strongly disagree that PR should be seen as a glorified messenger. The paper examined the different techniques that can be used by PR in curtailing crisis and security challenges and recommends capacity building for the achievement of good institutional administration, openness, accountability, transparency, respectability and delegation of responsibility in order to achieve good institutional and crisis free administration.

51 Exploring the Use of Indigenous Media for Political Communication: A Study of the 2019 General Elections in Ogbomoso South and Ogbomoso North Local Government Areas of Oyo State
1Adio, Olubukola Oluranti oluby2003@yahoo.co.uk 08069836822 || 08056710965
2Olatunji, Olusoji Samson sojioustimilehin@gmail.com 07032328254
3Olagoke, Olawale Israel olagokeisrael@gmail.com 08154524507 || 09026969988
1,2,3 Department of Mass Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria

The study, focused on the 2019 General Elections in Ogbomoso South and Ogbomoso North Local Government Areas of Oyo State, investigates the use of indigenous media for political communication. Anchored on the Uses and Gratification and McGuire’s Information-Processing theories, the study adopted survey research design. Two hundred and sixty two (262) subjects were sampled while simple percentage was used for data analysis. The study reveals that traditional media which operate on the principles of interpersonal and group communications were largely used for dissemination of political information (65-77%) while the entertaining forms, in addition, were effectively used for political awareness (58%-77.6%). Public meeting/conference, age-grades, traditional drums, dance drama, traditional songs/music and cultural associations were effectively used for political mobilisation (above 61%). However, study reveals that oral poetry, religious groups, town criers, story-telling, theatre and festivals were underutilized for political communication, 20-50 per cent of the respondents indicated varying degrees of usage. Indigenous media were most effectively used for political communication during the State House of Assembly election (61.2%-69.6%). Of all the traditional media recognized in this study, only public meeting/conference influenced voting decision to some extent (54.8%), while voting decision was considerably influenced by the use of traditional media during the State House of Assembly election alone. Seventy two per cent of the respondents believed in campaign messages sent via the traditional media more than those sent via the modern mass media, while 73.6 per cent indicated easy understanding of campaign messages delivered through the traditional media. Study reveals further that the modern mass media were more effective for dissemination of political information, political awareness and mobilization (above 72%) than the traditional media. The outcome of this study shows that the traditional media, particularly those that operate on the principles of interpersonal and group communications, can be used as suitable complement with the modern mass media for political communication, leveraging on the advantages of believability and easy comprehension of indigenous media messages.
Keywords: Indigenous media, political communication, General Elections

52 INFLUENCE OF INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE ADVERTISING ON VOTING DECISION DURING THE 2019 GUBERNATORIAL ELECTION IN OGUN STATE
‘Lekan TOGUNWA
Department of Mass Communication, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta Ogun State
08033609144, lektogunwa@gmail.com
Muhammed MOSHOOD
Crestal Consults, Quarry Road, Abeokuta Ogun State
08134885241, moshood1044@gmail.com

Political communication is an important part of every electioneering period. On this basis, this study examined the influence of indigenous language advertising on voting decision during the 2019 general elections in Ogun State. The focus of the study was on the major political parties that participated in the election: The African Democratic Party (ADC), The All Progressives Congress (APC), the Allied People’s Movement (APM) and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). Through survey research method, interview and questionnaire were used to source data for the study. Spokespersons of the leading political parties were interviewed to know how each of the parties deployed indigenous advertising while voters in Abeokuta South LGA were sampled. Result of the findings show that the candidate of the ADC, Prince Gboyega Nosiru Isiaka, used indigenous language advertising the most while radio was the most used medium in disseminating local political messages, and this was followed by the prints and television. This study concludes that indigenous advertising influenced the electorate in their voting decision and contributed to the overall outcome of the election – only to an extent, as other factors contributed to the results of the election. The study however recommends that politicians and their political parties should make use of indigenous language advertising going forward so that they can reach as many voters as possible. Study also views that indigenous advertising has potentials to get political messages across to those that vote in future elections.
Keywords: Politics, Advertising, Communication, language, election.

53 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: TOOLS FOR AFRICA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
1Fakorede David L 2Oguntayo Omotayo O. 3Oladeji Adesola A.
1,2Department of Office Technology and Management 3Department of Business Administration and Management
The Polytechnic, Ibadan

This paper focusses on Information and Communication Technology: Tools for Africa’s Economic Development. The paper explores whether ICT can provide better lives for people in Africa and, if so, how and in what ways. If Africa can use ICT in infrastructure, institutions, quality, health sectors, and agricultural sectors to enable information access to remote rural areas, to improve rural development and to increase sustainability and improve livelihood of people on the rural periphery. The paper recommends that Africa countries should invest more on Information and Communication Technology in order to realise its full transformation power on their economy, and Africa leaders should provide free access to the internet for the people in promoting learning.
Keywords: Information, Communication, Technology, Africa, Economic, Development

54 UNDERGRADUATES’ PREFERENCE FOR SMART DEVICES TO UNIVERSITY LIBRARY RESOURCES AND SERVICES FOR LEARNING AND RESEARCH IN TWO UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA
Kathleen Chinyere Phillips, oluphills2004@yahoo.com
The Polytechnic, Ibadan
Olalekan Abiola Awujoola, abileks132917@gmail.com
University of Ibadan

The access to and control of Information is the defining characteristic of this current era in human civilization. Information users demand for information in the best format appealing to them. They no longer want to be confined by time, space and the location of the information needed by them. All these and many more are afforded them through their smart devices which inform their preference of smart devices to the traditional way of seeking and retrieving information from the university library. This research provides an overview of the usefulness of smart devices, its functionality and the reasons for use of smart devices by undergraduates. The study revealed that besides phone, respondents from University of Ibadan mostly preferred Android to other smart devices, whereas Tablets are mainly preferred by respondents from Lead City University. The most significant among other categories of reasons for undergraduates’ preference for smart devices to university library resources is the ease, speed and ready access to information (ESRAI). However, it is believed that the gap of preference of smart devices to library resources can be closed, if smart devices can be integrated into library operations; and electronic format of current information resources in different disciplines can be provided.
Keywords: Undergraduates, smart devices, phone, android, tablets, library resources

55 OFFICE TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT AND NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Ibironke Oluwakemi Esther
Access Bank Plc, Ibadan
Oluwakemiibironke01@Yahoo.Com 08035672018
Omolade Olufunke Rhoda
Office Technology And Management Department, The Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
Olufunkerhoda90@Gmail.Com 08034884007

Office Technology Management offer the individuals a great opportunity in Information Technology (IT) industry. It at times offers the opportunities for the individuals to be exposed to skills in web – web designs/ web development; data base administration, internetpreneurship, data processing, graphic designs as well as IT consultancy among others. After graduation, they become involve in entrepreneurial to establish small – scale businesses of different types. Today’s Office Technology and Management delve into the 21st century realities of world of businesses. It also involves the development of positive attitudes towards innovation and development of right interest in IT. The present reliance of the present generation on computer technology has made the importance of Office Technology Management more important to any meaningful economic development the world over. As such, the roles and channels of Office Technology and Management has greatly evolved office automation and organization restructuring have led professional office managers to assume more responsibilities than before. Office Technology Management today thus creates awareness, develops the potentials in man to subdue and harness the resources in their environment for the betterment of him and the larger society. The foundation of the nation’s economy therefore rest with Office Technology Management as they are the driver of any nation economy and real development the world over. Though it is quite evident that Nigeria at present lacks innovation, capacities and capabilities in Information Technology Management and hardware maintenance, their impact is still great in the economic development of the country. Office Technology Management therefore assist to link Nigeria with the global economy for true development.
Keywords: Information and Communication Technology, Office Technology, Office Technology and Management, Management.

56 TECHNOLOGY, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1OLAITAN, Olumide Olatunde, Olumideolaitan67@gmail.com;
2OKEWOLE, Jacob Akintunde, tundejacobrocketmail.com;
3AZEEZ, Lukman Adedayo, lukman12002@yahoo.com;
4POPOOLA, Emmanuel Kolawole, Lepope4life@gmail.com
1, 2&3 Department of Accountancy, 4 Department of Public Administration, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.

Small and Medium Enterprises are the bedrock for socio-economic development in Nigeria. SMEs are characterized with various drawbacks which hampered the ability to catch up with global technological advancement. The study therefore examines the effect of technology on Small and Medium Enterprises Development in Nigeria. One Hundred and Fifty SMEs were sampled using purposive sampling technique. Qualitative data was gathered through administration of questionnaires. Regression Analysis was used to analyze the data. The study found that technology has significant effect on Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria. SMEs are still moving at snail-pace to catch up with global technological changes in globe. It is concluded that adequate finance is one of the major factors affecting SMEs Development in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that Government should provide adequate means of financing Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria.
Keywords: Technology, Small and Medium Enterprises, Development

57 SPORT BETTING PATRONAGE AMONG NIGERIA STUDENTS IN DIGITAL AGE
1 Oladimeji, Simon Pinheiro, 2 Olusoji, Samson Olatunji, 3 Sunday, Samson Owolabi
1 Department of Mass Communication, Interlink Polytechnic, Ijebu-Jesa, Osun State, Nigeria
otunbasop1980@gmail.com +2348160910409
2 Department of Mass Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan
sojioustimilehin@gmail.com +2347032328254
3 Department of Mass Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan
owoflowsam@gmail.com +2348038621543

The arrival of the digital revolution, Internet, other forms of new media, and the rise of online social networks has reshaped the media landscape and sport betting business. In recent time, more people are turning to their computers, cell phones, and Bluetooth devices for updates for sport betting predictions. The increasing rate of change in new devices and technology are part of our daily lives and betting is a part of these broad trends. This study examines how new technology has enhanced the patronage in the gambling industry among Nigeria students. The study was anchored on the theoretical framework of technological determinism and gratification theory, adopted quantitative research approach, surveyed 150 respondents purposively drawn from Students of Mass Communication Department, Interlink Polytechnic, Ijebu-Jesa, Osun State, and used the questionnaire as instrument of data collection. The percentage method was also used to analyze data. Research findings showed that digital age has a positive effect on sales performance of sport betting among the students. It was also an essential factor that was considered by sport betting companies to bring about customer’s patronage because it represents a powerful platform of communication and interaction worldwide. The researchers recommended sport betting companies should be forward-looking and equip their businesses with the appropriate tools and technology to provide them with the flexibility in their daily operation to enhance the patronage from their customers who are more digitally inclined.
Keyword: Internet, Betting, Sport, Computer, Patronage

58 AN APPRAISAL OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AS A CATALYST FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES (SMES) DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1Bolaji Aderemi Muyiwa: 08134282474 2Ajayi Jide Peter 3Owosowoye Issac Oluwatosin
1,2 &3Business Administration Department, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

This study examined Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its impact on Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) development in Nigeria. Specifically, this paper attempts to explore the extent to which the improvement in SMEs operation performance can be certified to the implementation of Information and communication technology (ICT). This study was narrowed to the selected SMEs in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State. Primary source of data was used and out of two hundred (200) questionnaires that were distributed, 156 were received and only 135 that were fully filled were used in data analysis with the use of Average Mean Score and regression statistical tool. The major result of the hypothesis tested showed that there is a significant relationship between the independent variable (adoption of ICT) and dependent variable (SMEs operation performance) (R2 = 0.763, P < 0.05). Findings from the analysis of the data indicate that SMEs have gained a significant advantage using ICTs particularly in the areas of communication and customers’ satisfaction, marketing efficiency, market penetration, time saving, promptly responding to market changes, reducing operational costs, increase level of country economy as whole and more importantly increasing revenue stream. To this end, it is recommended that there is the need for more training facilities in IT for SMEs, and ease of use to free professional advice and consulting on IT at reasonable cost to SMEs.
Keywords: Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs), Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and ICT adoption.

59 THE PHILOSOPHICAL PERCEPTION, MASS MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES AND CHALLENGES OF REGIONAL COOPERATION IN NIGERIA.
Olaniyan O. Oyebayo
olaniyan0507@yahoo.com
Department of Educational Foundations, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education (EACOED) Oyo, Oyo State

In the study, philosophical perception, mass media technologies and challenges of regional cooperation in Nigeria, Multiple Regression Analysis was used to examine the joint and relative contributions of the independent variables to the dependent variable at 0.05 significant levels adopted. 120 tertiary students (46 males and 54 females) purposively selected from four secondary schools in Ibadan, Oyo State participated in the study. Four instruments viz: Philosophical Perception of Technology Scales (PTS) (r = 0.82), Opportunity of Mass Media Technology Scales (OTS) (r =0.84), Challenges of Mass Media Technology Scales (CMTS) (r = 0.81) and regional cooperation (RCS) (r =0.81), were employed in the study. Data collected were analysed using Multiple Regression Analysis. Results showed significant Perception, Opportunities and Challenges, significantly jointly predict regional Cooperation towards Technologies among tertiary students in Nigeria (R2 = .09; F (4,145) = 3.71; p < .05). Also, result shows relatives that Perception ( = .32; t = 3.32; p < .05), Opportunities had significant independent influence ( = .24; t = 2.58; p < .05) and Challenges ( = .15; t = 1.56; p < .05) independently influence regional Cooperation Technologies. The recommendation of the study established that students should adopt this mass media technologies approach for education regional cooperation among students in Nigeria, Government, governmental agencies and non- governmental organisations should ensure equitable teaching with mass media technologies as analogue technology has given way to the digital revolution, the arrival of digital mass media makes it possible for students to meet their needs.
Keywords: Philosophical perception, Mass Media technology, Challenges and Regional Cooperation

60 IMPLEMENTATION OF E-TAXATION POLICY IN THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR
1Diekola Oluseyi Jospeh 2Wahab Yusuf Bolaji
1 & 2Department of Public Administration The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
ywahab12@yahoo.com

Much as the Nigerian citizen is entitled to an array of rights, so is he saddled with plethora of corresponding duties significant among which is the payment of tax. Tax is central to revenue generation drive by government and it goes to impact considerably on the economic status of a country. Unfortunately, the average Nigerian citizen is tax-shy, engaging in tax evasion, tax avoidance and such other tax infractions. This has come to heap on the Nigerian government the task of re-strategizing in the tax system; hence the emergence of e-taxation policy aimed at enhancing efficiency in tax generation, tax transparency and accountability. It is the dynamics of the implementation of this policy therefore which offers itself as the crux of this paper. The paper adopts theories of revenue to investigate how public sector utilizes the instrument of taxation as a means towards revenue generation. The study is a case study research with emphasis on Federal Inland Revenue Service as well as Federal Ministry of Aviation. The study adopts survey method while instruments of questionnaire and in-depth interview are used to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data on e-taxation policy in the Nigerian public sector. The study identifies taxation as a commonest means through which governments (Federal, State and Local) in Nigeria generate revenue without which provision of infrastructural facilities would have been difficult to achieve. In order to improve revenue generation system in Nigeria, the paper considers e-taxation policy as a mechanism for rectifying the major flaws emanating from tax administration in Nigeria.
Keywords: E-taxation, Policy and Public Sector

61 INFLUENCE OF FINANCIAL INCLUSION ON SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTREPRISES GROWTH IN OYO STATE NIGERIA.
1Kareem, T.S. kareemts11@yahoo.com
2Okegbemi, F.A.T. okegbemiabiodun@gmail.com
3Ogunleke, M.O. ogunlekemodupeola2013@gmail.com
Purchasing & Supply Department, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

This study examines the impact of financial inclusion on small and medium enterprises growth in Oyo State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identified various funding products provided by MFBs for SMEs operations determine the extent MFBs loan influences SMEs performance determined the constraint to procurement of the MFBs loan by SMEs. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 10 microfinance bank’s managers and 120 SMEs operators engaging in manufacturing trade education services and agriculture in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State. Data analysis was performed with the aid of frequency weighted mean score (WMS), Pearson Product Movement Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) and Ordinary Least Square (OLS). Result revealed that average monthly profit (r = 0.378, P .01) and average monthly sales (r = 0.292, P .01) and total capital (r = 0.289, P . 01) were positive and significant at 1% level while only number of employees (r = 0.208, P .05) was significant at 5% level with the impact of funding activities of MFBs. Result also indicated that the major constraint to have access to MFBs loan by SMEs is lack of collateral security. Poor accounting records of SMEs high interest rate difficulty in drafting an acceptable business plans and lack of technical skills. Results also revealed that MFBs loans (b = 0.557, t = 7.783*** P = .01) significantly influenced SMEs performance. The study concluded that MFBs are major predictor of SMEs growth in Oyo State, Nigeria. The implication of the study is that MFBs are the life wire of SMEs growth and development in Nigeria.
Keywords: Financial Inclusion, MFBs, Employment, Growth.

62 EFFECTS OF TRUANCY ON SECURITY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA.
Hassan Akintola
Rectory Department, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
‘Tunde Opadotun
Department of Accountancy, The Ibarapa Polytechnic, Eruwa.

Security is considered a key factor in socio-economic development world over. It is more so in the sense that underdevelopment in most third world countries are hinged on the lack of a veritable security architecture upon which the government can adequately forge its developmental roadmap. The lack of security in Africa is often acknowledged as being intrinsically linked with truancy in the sense that truancy is seen as an act of disorderly conduct while security is the state of being protected or safe from potential harm. This paper therefore examines the effects of truant behavior and how it affects national security in the drive for socio-economic development. It argues that the impact of truancy cannot be dismissed with a wave of the hand in light of recent developments across Africa. The paper further suggests approaches through which truancy can be mitigated. In its submission, it recommends that government should engineer well formulated policies that encourage literacy and patriotism.
Keywords: Truancy, Security, Socio-Economic Development, policies

63 CAUSES, IMPLICATIONS AND SOLUTIONS TO THE UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF AFRICA: NIGERIA’S EXPERIENCE
1WAHAB Y.B. 2ADENIYI F.I. 1*GAZALY F.O.
*obidirangazal@gmail.com
1Department of Public Administration, 2Department of General Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria

Africa, with its abundant human and natural resources, has been characterized as the most underdeveloped, crisis-riddled and worst economic performing continent in the world. The study of history which shows the interconnectedness between the past, the present and the future reveals that before the advent of the whites in Africa, Africans have their history, science, poetry, religion and philosophy, and have been successfully managing their social, economic and political systems. Grounded in the dependency theory which attributed the underdevelopment of the African continent to the exploitation of the developed world which colonized it, this paper attempts to show why underdevelopment has persisted in Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. It identifies slavery, colonisation, neo-colonization, the Bretton Woods institutions, mismanagement, poor governance, military coups, civil wars and corruption as the major causes of Nigeria’s underdevelopment. The paper also examines the political, economic and socio-cultural implications of Nigeria’s present state of underdevelopment. Thereafter, the paper suggests that Nigeria needs to properly manage its ethnic and religious diversity and promote inclusive democracy and good governance. The country’s managers also need to build strong institutions, prevent corruption, ensure quality infrastructures, security, education, health and social services, diversify the economy, protect local industries and endear positive attitudes to the locally made products as these are vital to the growth and sustainable development of Nigeria and other African countries.
Keywords: Globalisation, Conflict, Poverty, Underdevelopment, Good Governance, Strong institutions.

64 IRREGULAR MIGRATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHALLENGE IN NIGERIA
Sanni Olukayode Adekunle,
Department of Local Government and Development Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
Omogeebu2000@gmail.com
Ayansola Olawale O.
Department of Political Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
ayansolaolawale123@yahoo.com

In the world of nation-states, where borders are fixed, international migration is regulated and often restricted. The existence of national borders is relatively impermeable by border bureaucracy. In Europe and other developed continents of the world, migration policies have shifted in body politics from ‘low’ to ‘high’. International migration has intensified during the last two decades. Europe has been receiving increasing numbers of migrants from developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Since migration is as old as mankind, socio-economic challenge is a key river that propelled an out- source for a better life from their individual homeland. The phenomenon of irregular migration now possesses an increasing importance in the global political agenda. Although, several aspects of the world’s migration pattern have been investigated by scholars. What is yet fully to be fully examined in the extant body of literature on migration studies in Nigeria is the interface between socio-economic challenge and irregular migration with a specific reference to the dynamics of impacts poverty, unemployment and gross deprivation of basic wherewithal for humanity may imposed on migration pattern in Nigeria. This study will not only examine the context and character of socio-economic life in Nigeria but also its implications on migration pattern.
Keywords: Migration, Nigeria, Socio – Economic Challenge

65 AN EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGY ON SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN IBADAN NORTH WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT, OYO STATE, NIGERIA, AFRICA.
Bolaji, Aderemi Muyiwa 08134282474
Owosowoye, Isaac Oluwatosin 08059364867
Ajayi, Jide Peter 08054065784
Department of Business Administration and Management Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) rely on technology to operate on daily basis. From laptop computers with internet
capabilities to printers, online file storage and web-based applications, technological advances impact on Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) across various industries. Technology has the potential to affect Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) in positive and adverse way, depending on the goals an enterprise has as in place, the product they chose to use, and how well entrepreneurs and their employees adapt to new systems. This paper is the result of an evaluation of technology on Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) in Ibadan North West Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria, Africa. The researchers have reviewed the contributions of some authors on the research topic. This made up the literature review. The sample size used by the researcher for the study was 150. The methodology adopted was chi-square analysis. After the analysis, it was found out that training of employees and development is necessary in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) and inevitable. This work is divided into three sections; the first section deals with introduction of the topic, in section two, the researcher focuses on the review of related literature which include conceptual framework of technology and Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs), theoretical review and empirical studies. In section three, the researcher discussed the result obtained from data analysis and also made useful and constructive suggestions.
Keywords: Entrepreneur, Environment, Technology, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs).

66 NATIONAL SECURITY CHALLENGES AND NIGERIA SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
EMENIKE, Ogechi Anastasia
Department of General Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
annemenike@gmail.com, +2348034195215

This study examines the impact of national security on economic growth of Nigeria. The author adopted qualitative method, which entails extraction of secondary data on public expenditures on security, agriculture, education, health, and gross domestic product from the reports/publications of Central Bank of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics and other scholarly reports on the subject matter. The quantitative secondary data which spanned a period of fifteen years (2000 –2014) were subjected to econometric tests using STATA on the basis of which informed conclusions were drawn. Result showed that expenditure on security, education, agriculture and health (F (4, 10) = 6.91; R2 = 0.7344; p = 0.0062) are joint predictors of gross domestic product. This implies that expenditure on security, education; agriculture and health have positive and significant influence on economic growth of Nigeria. Furthermore, expenditure on security (t = 0.09) expenditure on education (t = 1.49) and expenditure on agriculture (t = 0.79) independently have positive impact on gross domestic product but not significant. It is concluded that bogus budgetary provision for national security, education, agriculture and health in Nigeria is not significantly influence economic growth. Subsequently, the paper recommends that government at all levels should provide employment opportunities for unemployed, restive and hopeless youth in the six geo-political zones in Nigeria in order to dissuade them from being recruited as militants, armed robbers and terrorists.
Key Words: National Security, Economic Growth, Employment Generation, Education

67 CAUSES AND COURSES OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION: INTERROGATING THE ETHICAL ISSUES IN CONFLICT INDUCED DISPLACEMENT IN AFRICA
1*OLALERE, Kunle Oluwafemi 2ADEDOKUN, Adeyemi Benjamen
*olalerefemi@gmail.com
1Department of General Studies, 2Department of Mass Communication, The Polytechnic Ibadan

Migration across national borders in Africa is perhaps as old as the continent itself. The impetus for these trans-border movements and migration of people from their homestead to other climes is often premised on economic, religious and explorative reasons. The increase in these form of migration in recent time has however been attributed to reasons other than the aforementioned. Recent discourses on international migration in Africa centers largely on conflict induced displacement caused predominantly, by various internecine wars across the continent. Scholars such as Laury Ocen and Richard Konteh have emphasized that conflicts leading to international migration are often as a result of social exclusion and competition for scarce resources and this signposts the need for moral considerations and empathy for the migrants. This paper therefore underscores the evident shift in the cause of international migration in Africa as against the norm. It also interrogates the integral ethical issues attendant to displacement or migration induced by conflicts and submits that migration being a natural phenomenon has been veritably encumbered by the sub-human treatment of migrants.
Keywords: Migration, displacement, ethics, migrants, sub-human.

68 MASS MEDIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN AFRICA
Okioya, Solomon Ojo Ogundeji, Benjamin Kayode
Department of Mass Communication, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State.

This study x-rays the role of the media in fostering economic, cultural, political and social interaction among the nations of Africa. The paper is of the opinion that for Africans to realise their ambition of regional integration and cooperation, news flow and news content must be shapen by Africans for African. News managers must embrace paradigm shift from the Western oriented information flow to news pattern that projects and promotes African culture. Some laudable initiatives taken by African leaders which served as the right steps to the right direction towards pursuing African regional integration such as the Lagos Plan of African. (LPA) of 1980 and the Abuja Treaty of 1999 should be pursued. The paper maintains that unless African people understands themselves, cooperate and share common thinking, history and destiny; as well as share common problems through the free flow of information, regional integration process will continue to suffer serious setbacks. Certain challenges preventing Africans from achieving regional cooperation and integration were highlighted and the study therefore recommends that there is need to overhaul all national news agencies in African as well as the need for constant training and retraining of media staff in African as obtainable elsewhere.
Keyword: Mass media, Regional integration, Africa.

69 MIGRATION, MOBILITY AND CROSS-BORDER TRADE IN AFRICA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Akinyemi, Akeem, A.
Department of General Studies,The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria.
+2348038235958 akinyemmy2009@yahoo.com

From the global perspective, migration and mobility play significant role in the transformation of the human society. Over the last two decades of the twentieth century, as well as the first decade of the twenty first century, there have been a notable renaissance among scholars and policy makers about the growing implications of cross-border trade among the various regions in Africa. Indeed, there seems to be a gradual departure and paradigm shift from the pessimistic to the optimistic dimension on the issue. Several scholars have argued that inasmuch as transcontinental trade has a stronghold on the African content, in the same way, cross-border trade has contributed positively in no small measure to the development of the continent. Thus, this research seeks to examine the historical development of cross-border trade in Africa and its impact in the development of the continent. The historical-analytical and empirical method is adopted in this research. Documentary and record data collection is based on semi-structured interviews, popular culture, newspaper commentaries and opinions, articles, books and other relevant secondary literature gathered through a multidisciplinary approach which involves drawing accurately from several academic disciplines to interrogate problems outside normal boundaries and reach solutions based on a new comprehension of multifaceted circumstances. Findings from the study and recommendations are expected to contribute to the global knowledge on migratory historiography, particularly the historical antecedents of cross-border trade in Africa, and its implications in the development of the continent.
Keywords: Migration, cross-border trade, historical development, Africa

70 MODERN RADIO BROADCASTING: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL TO ENHANCE REGIONAL COOPERATION AND INTERGRATION IN NIGERIA.
1ADENIYI, S. Olukayode, S_niyi @ yahoo.com
2OKE, Olubunmi. J., Bunmiogundeji@ yahoo.com
1 & 2Mass Communication Department, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

The formal system of inter-regional trade and commerce in Africa necessitates migration of different ethnic groups from their home base to different regions across the African Continent to harness trade of commodities where such commodities are in demand. Overtime, migrants began to settle and live among the host communities. As commercial activities continued to expand, processing of one commodity began to affect the processing of other commodities. This invariably often triggers conflict between the host community and the migrants. One of the factors identified to be associated with the problem is that African leaders are slow to address complaints and arguments of people in conflict. Other key factors identified are communication related issues. This study reviews some hypothetical factors that contribute to the deterrent of peaceful co-existence and integration of ethnic groups across Nigeria. It also analysed the potentials of modern radio broadcasting such as clarity of signals, wide geographical coverage, affordable and availability of common digital audio receivers. it also considered radio cloud, the current development in modern radio broadcasting. Radio cloud permits accessibility to signals across the globe. The theoretical framework used is “Agenda setting Theory” by which radio programmes developed as prototype to influence the thinking of listeners and set their minds in the right perspective.

71 TRANS-BORDER MIGRATION AND SECURITY IN AFRICA
1ABIMBOLA, K., kennyheadway75@gmail.com
2OLUPONA, A. M. PhD, ayalawyer@yahoo.com
2Department of General Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

Migration across border has been a source of concern on security in Africa. Migration is meant to enhance the living status of the migrants in terms of securing more comfortable and habitable location, improving their economic activities, seek asylum in the nearest nation, get a more lucrative job and promote social, political and economic activities in such nation. However, trans-border migration in Africa could be illicit in most cases, immigrants move to other nations in illegal ways that oppose the required immigration law. The ECOWAS protocol on free movement on May 29, 1979 enabled free mobility of member citizens to migrate freely across nations’ borders in West Africa. The AU convention on cross-border cooperation and governance on 14th June 2014 promised to transform border areas into catalyst for growth, political integration and promotion of peace thus, encouraged migration across the borders of nations in Africa which has posed a great threat to security of lives and properties in African nations. Terrorism, crimes, crisis, human trafficking and proliferation of arms and weapons and all forms of pandemonium which bedeviled the security of nations in Africa have been imported by the immigrants. This paper examines trans-border migration and security in Africa. The study adopts surplus Rural Manpower and Wage disparity theories to explain the reasons for trans-borders migration. The study made use of the descriptive research method, where data for this study was collected through secondary source. The population of this study is all nations in Africa while the sample for the study is limited to five (5) nations in Africa which are Nigeria, Republic of Benin, Chad, Niger Republic and Cameroon, where the rate of trans-border migration was examined. This study identifies certain gaps in the issue of trans-border migration such as porousity of the borders in African nations which accommodates illicit immigrations, poor structure of security along borders in African states and ineffectiveness of the government concerned to grant the immigrants the required documents which differentiate them from the citizens. This study concludes that proactive measures should be taken to provide adequate security on African borders and curtail the rate at which immigrants cross the borders in order to reduce all forms problems bedeviling security through trans-border migration in Africa.
Keywords: Migration, Trans-border migration, Security.

72 MASS MEDIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF REGIONAL COOPERATION AND INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA
1.Olagoke, Olawale Israel
olagokeisrael@gmail.com 08154524597; 08062952304
2.Owolabi, Samson Sunday
Department of Mass Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan
owoflowsam@gmail.com 08038621543; 08054050277

This paper examines Mass media and the challenges of regional cooperation and integration in Nigeria. The mass media, being the fulcrum upon which all developmental endeavours rotates, must be accepted in the first place as an essential agent in exchange for the mission of promoting and facilitating economic and political development through regional cooperation and integration in Nigeria. The media perform the functions of servicing the political system and holding society together as a sort of cultural glue among other things. Media in African countries, especially in Nigeria are not yet free from government control. In such a situation where the media practitioners are not free to carry out their duties, intra-regional information flow will be jeopardised. And this is a challenge to regional integration process. Media from different regions are under the strict surveillance and control of their respective governments, thereby sacrificing objectivity in their reportage. Considering the enormous tasks facing the media, especially as it concerns socialisation and integration, regional leaders across the nation should consider the media sector as a priority area by voting enough funds for its operations and allowing it to operate freely without any governmental interference. Also, there should be the freedom of the press if media in the country are to perform their integration roles to the fullest. There should be constant training and re-training of media staff in Nigeria as obtainable in the outside world. Constant training will serve as an eye opener to the third world media practitioners on the dimensions of power play in the industry, especially in the international arena, and also the need for them to go back to the drawing board, adopting a pattern that will fast track the integration and development process of the region.
Keywords: Regional Cooperation, Mass media, Regional Integration, Nigeria

73 PREDICTING MIGRATION TO DEVELOPED COUNTRIES: THE PLACE OF MEDIA ATTENTION
1Lasisi, M. I., mutiu.iyanda@gmail.com , +2348062544816
2Adebiyi, R. A. rasheed.adebiyi@gmail.com+2348039171065
3Ajetunmobi, U. O., ajetunmobiumarolansile@gmail.com+2348161777838
1 &3Infoprations Limited, Lagos 2Department of Mass Communication, Fountain University, Osogbo

All over the world, migrants desert their home countries to seek better economic opportunities, living and working conditions, socio-cultural identification, education or to seek refuge/asylum in host countries. From 2010 to 2017 for instance, over 8 million Nigerians left the country for the US, the UK, Germany and Italy alongside some Asian countries. Thus, this paper investigated the influence of the media on the interest of Nigerians to always migrate to developed countries. To achieve this objective, the researchers conducted a systematic review of migration papers, reports and news stories using Google News and Google Trends used for data collection. Then, the aggregated data were subjected to meta-analysis. Guided by cultural dimensions, agenda setting and framing theories, the authors found out that the frequent reportage of socio-economic and political situations of developed and developing countries and the people’s readiness to understand the situations through constant search using new media technologies are enhancing global migration. Our partial prediction established that high volume of negative news on developing countries would continue to enhance their citizens’ movement into the developed ones. Therefore, the paper recommends that the Nigerian media and Nigerians should be more patriotic in reporting the country’s socio-economic and political situations with positive diction; the government, through effective policy formulation and execution, should also show the political and leadership will to provide the basic social amenities, better working environment and employment opportunities Nigerians deserve.
Keywords: Migration, Google News, Nigeria, Media Attention Agenda Setting

74 GREEN LOGISTICS AS A SOCIO-TECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGY TOWARDS EFFICIENT TRANSPORTATION ALONG OJOO-DUGBE TRANSPORT CORRIDOR, IBADAN, NIGERIA
1Kelani O. AJADI 2Abiodun A. ADENIRAN 3Olufola T. ELEGBEDE
1 Department of Urban & Regional Planning; 2Department of Civil Engineering 3 Department of Estate Management & Valuation, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria

Transport has significant social cost involving negative externalities ranging from vehicular traffic congestion, vehicular traffic accidents, impacts on health, easier spread of epidemic, deforestation, biodiversity loss and the degradation. The paper focuses on the causes and effects of the road external social cost, specifically vehicular traffic congestion, along Ojoo – Dugbe Transport Corridor, to the individual, society, and environment. Sources of data include the primary and secondary through distribution of structured questionnaire to commercial drivers, passengers, and articles from journal, Google databases, theses and newspapers. A total of 1211 registered commercial private small sized passenger cars shuttling between Ojoo – Dugbe Transport Corridor were identified and assumed would ply the study area during the 7-day survey period. A total of 1211 sets of questionnaires were expected to have been produced and distributed but based on Fluid Survey Team Sample Size calculator, 568 was suggested as samples. The 568 sets of questionnaires were distributed but only 519 (91.4%) were retrieved for the survey period. Findings reveal causes of congestion as poor and insufficient parking habit and facilities, poor traffic control management and designed junction/roundabout, presence of heavy trucks, insufficient pedestrian facilities, inadequate overhead bridges/flyover and many private cars on the road are identified problems along the corridor. Effects of these problems include wasting time of motorists and passengers, delay, waste of fuel, increase air pollution, wear and tear on vehicles, road rage, blocked passage of emergency vehicles, and higher chance of collision. Green transport scheme suggested as remedies.
Keywords: Transport, Logistics, Green Logistics, Green Transport, Social cost

75 PUBLIC RELATIONS AND ADVERTISING IN THE CONTEXT OF PEACE BUILDING AND NATIONAL SECURITY
Olusoji Olatunji
Department of Mass Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

Public Relations and Advertising are two important tools that are very useful in the modern society. Public Relations creates an understanding through effective communication between the organisation and its publics while advertising is a communication technique through which information can be disseminated effectively to the public. This study examines Public Relations and Advertising in the context of peace building and national security. The study adopted meta-analysis with the use of available literature and seminar papers on the subjects of advertising, public relations, national security and peace building. Findings in this study revealed that effective Public Relations policies and good Advertisement will encourage free flow of information between organisations, companies and the public and they will know the intentions of one another and understand one another well. Also, Advertisement and Public Relations could be used as effective tools to manage crisis through effective dialogue between government as both parties would be well informed and guided –properly by adequate information. Advertising provides informational utility by getting information from the advertiser to the public. Thus, it creates awareness to the public on current issues and expose the public to information through advertising. It was therefore recommended that government, organisations and companies should make effective use of Public Relations, and Advertisement in resolving crises and for peace-building and public relations professionals should be given more profile and portfolio in government as they can serve as agents of peace and equally give adequate advice in management of crisis and peaceful resolutions among the public.

76 THE MASS MEDIA AND NATIONAL SECURITY IN NIGERIA: SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
1ADEDIJI, Moses Olumide, olumideadedijimoses@gmail.com
2ADUNOLA, Najeem, 3AKOLADE, Patrick Olusegun 4 ADEDOKUN, Solomon Olugbade.
Mass Communication Department, 1,3,4 The Ibarapa Polytechnic, Eruwa 2The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

The traditional functions of Mass Media in Nigeria are to inform, educate and entertain. They comprise the means by which a society disseminates and receives information. The Mass Media serve as Watchdog of the society, agenda setters and force multipliers. The role of the mass media in Nigeria’s National Security cannot be over-emphasized. The Mass media sensitise, enlighten, and persuade members of the public to participate actively in development activities. The information being disseminated could be harmful or useful to the society. The Hypodermic Needle or Magic Bullet Theory of the press accords the mass media over-whelming power above the audience. They therefore have the power to bring about positive change to the society and subsequently serve as agent of change. The Mass media practitioners however will have to work in societies that have great respect for socio-cultural values. These values determine, to a great extent, the editorial content of the mass media which may curb or fuel the already charged security problem in the country. This paper will therefore attempt to evaluate the role of mass media in Nigeria’s national security with emphasis on certain socio-cultural variables. It will appraise both the Bullet and Social Responsibility Media theories to determine the extent at which the media had contributed to peaceful co-existence in Nigeria. The Paper will therefore make necessary recommendations that will promote peace and tranquility in Nigeria.
Keyword: Mass Media, National Security, Socio-Cultural Values

77 PROMOTING TOURISM POTENTIALS IN BADAGRY, LAGOS STATE, A KEY TO SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1Oyejide, O.I., 2Adejare, J.A. & 3Folaranmi, O.M
1, 2,3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

Tourism development in Nigeria has undergone a gradual but progressive evolution with each phase reflecting its growing importance in the economy. Badagry, a town in Lagos State, Nigeria boasts of multiple tourism potentials due to its proximity to vast Atlantic splendour, its important role in the Trans -Atlantic slave trade, and its being the cradle of western civilization in Nigeria. The town has a rich historical heritage and abundant relics of historical significance. This research work is aimed at ascertaining the level of tourism patronage at Badagry, Lagos State, with a view to identifying factors affecting patronage and suggesting solutions to identified problems using four (4) tourism sites in Badagry. In order to achieve the set aim, objectives were set to assess the socio-economic characteristics of tourists, identify tourism potentials and recreational facilities in the study area, identify the extent the personal attributes of the respondents associate with some of their leisure – pleasure orientations, assess the readiness to pay for services, identify factors militating against tourism development in the study area and proffer necessary solutions. In all, two hundred (200) questionnaire were administered during peak and off-peak periods using purposive sampling techniques. Interview was also conducted on officials at each tourist site. The study revealed that tourists found it difficult patronizing the sites due to bad condition of access roads. Similarly, the state of most available infrastructure at these sites was poor Also, the level of awareness about the availability of these tourist sites is low on the part of outsiders or visitors while people living within close proximity to each tourist site are well aware of their existence. Furthermore, there is apparent lack of input by tourism professionals on all the sites visited. Recommendations proffered include involvement of tourism professionals, public–private partnership which will enhance the provision of basic infrastructural facilities, better packaging and sponsoring of ‘Badagry Festival’, marketing and promotion strategy and foreign investment on these sites.
Keywords: Tourism development, sustainable development

78 THE NATURE OF NEGLIGENCE IN PROPERTY VALUATION PRACTICE
1*ABIOYE OLATUNDE KEHINDE 2ELEGBEDE OLUFOLA TOYOSI 3Moradeyo Oluwatunmise Samuel
1,2,3Department Estate Management and Valuation, The Polytechnic, Ibadan barrkehindeabioye@yahoo.com 08034825823

The term negligence is defined in Black’s Law Dictionary (2009) as “the mission to do something which a reasonable man, guided by the ordinary consideration which ordinarily regulate human affairs would do, or the doing of something which a reasonable and prudent man would not do.” According to this study, professional negligence arises from error of omission and commission or lack of necessary care in the discharge of duties and assignments of a professional, in the courses of valuer discharging his duties, negligence may occur where the valuer steps outside the boundaries of his professional competence. This study examines the nature of negligence in property valuation practice. NIESV Oyo state directory reveals there are 64 Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Ibadan, this constitutes the simple frame for the study. The study concluded that factors influencing various forms of negligence includes adoption of wrong valuation method; erroneous valuation assumption; yielding to client’s influence, lack of relevant information/data among others.
Keywords: Negligence, Property, Variation, Valuation, Profession

79 THE MEDIA, EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA.
Akere Abiodun Olalere,
Department Of Music Technology, The Polytechnic Ibadan

Media derived from medium, being a way through which you can communicate with others. Talk about letters, emails, posters, hand bills, physical meetings and all. There is also mass media that allows one to communicate with a large number of people. Here you have radio, television, newspapers, internet et al. media play a critical role in improving governance and reducing corruption, increasing economic efficiency and stability, and creating positive social and environmental change. The media provide information to educators throughout society allowing them to participate technologically in the decisions relating to educational advancement that shape the lives of young scholars. The media also play in important monitoring role in a democracy that enables citizens to hold their governments and elected officials accountable leading to better policies and service implementation for socio- economic development. Media catalyzes positive changes in society by providing the information that influences public opinion. A strong, free, and independent media sector leads to lower corruption levelswhich helps to promote and improve our democracy and sets about the process of Good Governance. The media has become the crucial bridge through which the governed and the government reach out to one another. in conclusion By making one part of a country aware of other parts, their people, arts, customs, and politics; by permitting the national leaders to talk to the people, and people to the leaders and to each other; by making possible a nation-wide dialogue on national policy; by keeping the national goals and national accomplishments always before the public–thus modern communication, widely used, can help weld together isolated communities, disparate subcultures, self-centered individuals and groups, and separate developments into a truly sicio-economic development.
Keywords: Educational Advancement catalyzes disparate subcultures.